Xia Dynasty (2183 BCE- 1751 BCE)

According to “The Age of Xia, The Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji)” of Sima Qian, Nonamegthe Xia Dynasty lasts about four hundred years from 2138 BCE to 1751 BCE. The Erlitou Culture found in Yensi Hsien of Honan Province in 1975 has been confirmed to be the Xia Dynasty. From the available Xia Dynasty jade artifacts found, we can see the rich variety of Xia Dynasty jade artifacts. They  include jade ring, jade ax, notched zhang, notched bi-disk, arched plaques most of which are rather large and thin in size and have symmetrical lines. Parallel and intersection incised thin lines are used to form simple and concise motif. Moreover, many Xia jades have the trellis design consisting intersecting straight lines to form close and inseparable rhomboid shape that further to generate the  exaggerated effect and the feeling of the mystery and solemnest that these ritual artifacts are carrying.shanhaijing_illustration_of_nuwashiji

Although the existence of Xia Dynasty is still doubted by some typical historians disregarding the existence of “The Age of Xia, The Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji)”.  In addition to “The Age of Xia, The Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji)”, the Chinese classic book Classic of Mountains and Seas (Shan Hai Jing) also contain some 01300000821754127065428880188clues to its existence. Recently, some sources from the internet mentioned that the characters of the Xia Dynasty have a system different from the oracles of Shang Dynasty.30adcbef76094b363230fd8fa7cc7cd98d109d36

There are some sources claimed the characters based on the scripts from some doubtful jades. Both the jades and the characters cannot be verified before an objective authentication process has been done. The starting period of Xia Dynasty falls in the range of later period of Hongshan Culture around 2000 BCE. There are some jade artifacts have motifs of Hongshan Culture with ancient characters different from the oracle of Shang Dynasty. Those jade artifacts may be identified as Xia Dynasty jades or Hongshan Culture jades. It is possible that the Xia Dynasty was established by the offspring’s of Hongshan people. Some source claims that Xia Dynasty relates to the Liangzhu Culture. Sample Xi Dynasty jades are as follows:

Argricultural Civilization of  Xia Dynasty(夏代玉鉞)

Xia Dynasty Zhangs(夏代玉璋)-Ancient Chinese Ritual Jades

Xia Dynasty Jade Ring,夏代玉瑗 D. 9.8cm, 75grams

根據百度百科資料: 1996年5月,国家启动了夏商周断代工程。该工程就是以人文科学和自然科学download相结合,集中相关学科的优势,力求作出能反映20世纪年代学研究最高水平的成果,制定有科学依据的《夏商周年表》。根据各历史阶段材料的不同情况,《夏商周年表》要达到对西周共和元年以前各王,提出比较准确的年代;对商代后期武丁以下各王,提出比较准确的年代;对商代前期,提出比较详细的年代框架;对夏代提出基本的年代框架。夏商周断代工程集中了9个学科12个专业,200多位专家学者联合攻关。
历史学家将以历史文献为基础,把中国历代典籍中有关夏商周年代和天象的材料尽量收集起来,加以分析整理;天文学家要全面总结天文年代学前人已有的成果,推断若干绝对年代,为夏商周年代确定科学准确的坐标;考古学家将对和夏商周年代有密切关系的考古遗存进行系统研究,建立相对年代系列和分期;在测年科学技术方面,主要采用碳14测年方法,包括常规法和加速器质谱计法。
夏商周断代工程对传世的古代文献和出土的甲骨文金文等材料进行了搜集、整理、鉴定和研究;对其中有关的天文现象和历法记录通过现代天文学给予计算从而推定其年代;同时对有典型意义的考古遗址和墓葬材料进行了整理和分期研究,并进行了必要的发掘,获取样品后进行碳-14测年。
结论与意义:2000年11月9日夏商周断代工程正式公布了《夏商周年表》。《夏商周年表》定download约开始于前2070年,夏商分界大约在公元前1600年,盘庚迁都约在公元前1300年,商周分界(武王伐纣之年)定为前1046年。依据武王伐纣之年和懿王的元年的确立,建立了商王武丁以来的年表和西周诸王年表。