Qijia Culture齊家文化 (2400 BCE– 1900 BCE) Jades

Dated back around four thousand years ago, Qijia Culture covered Kansu, Ningxia and Chinghai Provinces of the Yellow River Areas. The variety of jade artifacts from Qijia Culture is various. Typical jade artifacts from this period are jade knives, zhangs, kweis, bi and congs. Most of the jade artifacts unearthed are found with plain and smooth surface.201106291037430964

A unique feature of Qijia Culture jade artifacts is the uni-directional hole-drilling, resulting in visibly irregular edges. Most of the jade artifacts unearthed are found with plain surface. It is claimed that if a Qijia artifact has motif, then its genuineness is doubtful. Typical jade artifacts from this period are fine carved thin jade knives and zhangs with fine polished smooth surfaces.

地理區而言, 齊家文化分佈於甘肅, 青海及寧夏,就歷史的長河而言, 齊家文化距今約四千年. 齊家文化玉器種類繁多, 但多以素麵為主. 其工藝的特徵是單向鑽孔, 留有毛邊. 薄片切割的精美玉刀是代表作.古方認為”就目前考古資料而言,齊家文化玉璧和玉琮主要發現於中國西北地區的甘肅、青海和寧夏的齊家文化遺址和墓葬中,其中以甘肅最多。甘肅出土地點有:靜寧縣治平鄉後柳溝村、靜寧縣深溝鄉晨光梁、定西市團結鄉高泉村、定西市安定區內官營鎮四月八山和清溪村、定西市安定區三十里鋪、武

威市皇娘娘台、臨洮縣李家村、甘谷縣渭水峪、天水市師趙村、廣河縣齊家坪、永靖縣新坪鄉新莊坪、渭源縣七聖村、會寧縣中川鄉老鴉溝村油坊莊、榆中縣甘草店。另外莊浪縣和隴西縣採集有齊家文化玉璧和玉琮。青海出土地點有:民和縣喇家、民和縣馬營鄉馬家村陽坪、民和縣中川鄉清泉旱台、大通縣上孫家寨、同德縣巴溝鄉宗日、西寧市沈那、樂都縣白崖子。寧夏出土地點有:原州區河川鄉上台村、德隆縣沙塘鄉、西吉縣白崖鄉。從出土範圍來看,齊家文化玉璧與玉琮主要集中分佈在兩個區域,即甘肅東部天水、定西、慶陽地區和寧夏南部固原地區,以及甘肅中部武威、蘭州、臨夏和青海東部西寧地區。這兩個區域都是齊家文化分佈範圍內文化堆積最為豐

富的地區,也說明傳世的玉璧和玉琮應該來源於上述地區。蘭州梅景峰認為齊家文化玉料開片後有四 個特點:一是平整,二是光潔,這一點從殘存的玉料開片上看得很清楚,只經過開片工序,留下的面沒有經過打磨也很光滑,有自然的光潔感;三是很多玉璧和殘存的玉料上都有當時開片留下的直線切割痕跡;四是大多數玉璧厚薄不均。如果一件玉璧呈規則的圓形,且孔壁很直,那可能就不是齊家文化的玉璧了。至於線刻紋飾和減地浮雕等,這些技法在真正的齊家文化玉璧上還沒有發現。Samples are as follows:

  1. Qijia Culture Jade Cong 齊家文化玉琮
  2. Qijia spindle-shaped bi L. 8cm, W. 8cm, 120grams
  3. Qijia Culture Jade Zhang齊家文化玉璋
  4. Qijia Culture Jade Ax, H.21cm,W. 20cm,T. 0.3cm, 520grams齊家文化玉戚
  5. Qijia Cultural Jade Zhang, L.35cm,W. 7cm, T.0.5cm, 250grams
  6. Qijia Culture Jade knife,齊家文化玉刀L. 36cm, W. 9cm T. 0.5cm, 800grams
  7. Notched Jade Ring, D. 8cm, T.0.2cm, 60grams
  8. Qijia Culture Jade Bi,齊家文化玉璧 D. 23cm, T.0.3cm
  9. Qijia Culture Jade Knife, 齊家文化五孔白玉玉刀L. 46cm, W. 12cm T. 0.5cm,800grams
  10. Qijia Culture Jade Kwei, L.30.5cm

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