In 1929, more than four hundred pieces jade artifacts were found by a farmer called Yann Dao Chun in the Kwanhan City in Szechwan Province in China. Since then, excavations have continued by local archaeologists and the mystery of the Ancient Sze Kingdom has started to attract the curious minds worldwide. In 1986, several thousand pieces of gold, bronze, jade artifacts, ivories have been unearthed in Sanxindui by local archeologists. The mystery of the Sanxingdui Culture has invited many conjectures. Some source claimed that Sanxingdui culture was the culture of Emperor Zen in 3000 BCE. Some sources believed that it covered the period of the Dynasties of Xia, Shang, and Western Zhou to Warring States.
Most jade artifacts from the Sanxingdui Culture are made of nephrite and are extraordinarily and elaborately carved. The variety of jade artifacts is rich. In addition to individual ritual jades such as jade congs, zhangs, kweis, there are many jade heads with protrude eyes and wide ears. In particular, there are jade priests holding ritual jades of bi, cong, kwei and huang. There are also jade knights holding sword standing on the jade cong decorated with open work style jade elephant heads. The shapes of ritual jades are identical as those of the Shang Dynasties through Warring States. Researches wonder whether the Sanxingdui Culture has influence on those of the Shang Dynasty or the ritual jades of Shang Dynasty has influence on the Sanxingdui jades. The Sanxingdui jade artifacts of priests and knights with displayed prominent pupils and wide ears have invite lots of explanations without any consensus. Some jade heads even have rectangular cubic gadget similar to the antenna of flying objects. No wonder that many people believed that they are related to other cultures not originated in China, even some people claimed that they are from an extraterrestrial civilization. Some Sanxingdui Culture jade such as jade heads has scripts of which the meanings are unknown yet. The meanings of those scripts will absolutely help to explore the mystery of Sanxingdui Culture. As far as the ivories are concerned, researches have put an effort to find out where were these ivories from. Some claimed that these were the trade items from Southeast Asia states in ancient time. However, from the jade figurine that has the elephant cong suggested that the elephants were local. In a nutshell, many mysteries of the Sanxingdui Culture need the clues from the artifacts to explore.