古玉密碼探究, An Investigation of Secret Code of Antique Jades

古玉中往往有些特殊的結構或紋飾, 這些特殊的結構或紋飾提供了一些密碼, 讓我們可以還原玉器的意義及時代背景. 本文試圖從三個例子加以說明:.

1. 矩的紋飾:玉器出現矩的紋飾可以有兩種猜想, 一是這是戰國時期工匠團體的徽章, 二是秦代的圖騰, 秦國統一後, 統一文字, 車同軌, 一切制度力求統一完備, 制玉工匠均經過認證, 以矩作為認證符號, 類似現在的正字標記.

吐魯番的伏羲女媧圖,《伏羲女媧圖》作於唐(西元618~907年)用絹本設色而成的,縱長220釐米,橫長116.5釐米。出於阿斯塔那哈拉和卓古墓群, 伏羲在左、左手執矩,女媧在右,右手執規,人首蛇身,蛇尾交纏。我國古代有「天圓地方」之說,女媧執規象徵天,

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伏羲執矩象徵地。1953年,科學家發現,生物的一種基本遺傳物體――脫氧核糖核酸的分子,這一化生萬物的基本遺傳物質的結構――一種雙螺旋線的結構形式,竟然與吐魯番地區表現化生萬物的人類始祖形象非常相似。聯合國教科文組織雜誌《國際社會科學》1983年試刊號的首頁便以《伏羲女媧圖》為插圖。Square3

2. 婦好墓的玉貴人背後的Y形體:一直被稱為婦好墓柄形器玉貴人, 此一定義應該正名為鳳尾紋玉跪人. 事實上, 商人自稱為玄鳥之後, 玉貴人背後的所謂柄, 事實上就是玄鳥的尾巴.這個觀點可以從光武御製銘文硯滴玉鷹的尾巴造型得到佐證.

3.S龍玉珮龍身之間的橫向體: S龍造型玉佩係戰國玉器之特有風格, 龍係飛翔空中穿梭于雲霧間之吉祥物, 從設計之造型上, 為了達到雲之效果, 便在龍身之間, 加上一橫向體.

There are some special motifs or carvings in antique jades. These motifs or carving usually provide us clues to understand the meaning and evidences of jades of particular periods. Here we try to elaborate this S__3588098from three particular jades.

(1) The square ruler motif: There are two conjectures to this. The first is that it is a symbol of the jade carvers of the Warring States, or the Chin State (771 BC-221 BC). The second conjecture is that this is the symbol of the Chin Dynasty.(221 BC-207BC) . After the Chin Dynasty unified the whole nation, it has established all the systems such as characters, the measurement system, the system of workers organization. All workers may be managed by a certain certification system. The symbol of the square ruler may a symbol of  certification.

S__3735558a(2) The handle attached on the back of the Shang Dynasty knelling person: Commonly recognized as the handle which is annex on the back of knelling person should be the phoenix tail. According to the Shang Dynasty people belief, they are the ancestor of phoenix. Therefore, we have reason to redefine the handle of the Shang Dynasty knelling person as the Shang Dynasty Phoenix tail knelling person.

(3)The horizontal bar at the center of the S-dragon body: This kind of jade plaque has been called S dragon for a long time. The unique element for this kind of jade form is the horizontal bar at the center of the dragon body.  It is interesting to note that this particular horizontal bar is in fact to represent the cloud in the sky to further imply that the dragon is flying in the sky and fly through the cloud. (Lower left image shows the typical presentation of flying through cloud dragon.) For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.

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