玉舞人在中華玉文化中的時代特色, Dancer’s Unique Role in the Chinese Jade Culture

王慶之”中國最早的職業舞者~巫“認為甲骨文裡,「巫」寫作「」,上橫和下橫表示「天地」、左豎和右豎表示「四方」,也就是「貫通天地四方、打破時間和空間界限的人或行為。」所以巫是指有超能力的人。東漢的「說文解字」記載︰「巫,巫祝也,女能事無形以舞降神者也,象兩袖舞形,與工同意。」,作者許慎解釋說︰「巫」,篆字寫作「」,「」代表人兩手拿著羽毛跳舞。「巫、工、舞、祝」四字意思相同,都是指用舞蹈與神溝通的人。巫雖然多才多藝、身兼多職,但本業仍是主持祭祀,在儀式進行中唱歌、領舞。「書經」上說︰「恆舞於宮,酣歌於室,時謂巫風。」宮中民間都頻頻舉行祭祀,歌舞不輟,充滿著濃厚宗教色彩,表達了先民敬畏天地、討好鬼神、崇拜圖騰、思慕祖先的心聲,也表達出對子孫繁盛、耕耘豐收、出征勝利的祈求……,於是產生了各式各樣的祭祀舞。商、周時,巫舞在中原一再受到限制,南方地區吳、越、楚等國都崇尚巫風,巫舞處處可見。1941年,戰國楚墓出土彩繪人物漆奩舞女,長袖細腰,翩翩起舞。其次, 中國先秦及漢代的玉舞人(舞女)可作為這種文化的物證。戰、漢時期的玉舞人表現了此時期的舞蹈形式,長袖飄甩,舞姿曼妙。而舞人這種玉器形制也只在戰、漢時期出現,其它各朝極少。漢代玉舞人與戰國時期玉舞人相比,雖形制相象,但雕琢手法、表現形式images (2)上區別也較大。漢代玉舞人多為扁平狀鏤雕,以細陰線表現20160503T7人物衣飾、體態、五官輪廓、面部表情細緻入微。另一種圓雕玉舞人形象更加生動,衣服褶皺、髮型、舞姿飄逸、靈動。漢舞與先秦之舞,期間的傳承自有脈絡可循。由江蘇徐州馱籃山楚王墓出土西漢陶舞俑看,從服飾到舞姿與玉人有相似之處,但發式迥然不同,這是兩個時代的明顯區別。Dancing is a popular activity for all races of the world in ancient times. The Chinese is no exception. According to Book of Documents , priestess dances during practicing prey. The jade dancer form emerging from the Warring States period and becoming popular in the Han Dynasty may be derived from priestess.

  1. 戰國乘鳳玉舞人, L.15cm, W.8cm

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本器青玉雕琢, 形制為玉舞女乘鳳于飛.舞女長袖飄甩,  鳳鳥展翅飛翔於天際, 雙翼及尾部羽毛淺浮雕精緻, 充分呈現力與美. 全身補白處飾戰國風格之游絲陰線, 形態婉約優美. 本器之主題應該是描繪舞女之舞姿優美曼, 有如鳳鳥飛翔於天際. 古玉跡象為飯沁及土咬, 包漿明顯. Carved with green tone jade, the object has the form of jade plaque with the dancer standing on the back of a flying phoenix. Low relief carving is applied to the wings and tail of the Phoenix where thin incised lines decorating with Warring States style curving lines by extremely well design. The dancer’s sleeves are wide and loose to facilitate the movement during dancing. The theme of this object may be the exaggeration of the extremely dancing skill like the phoenix  flying in the sky.

2. 戰國龍鳳穀紋玉舞人, H.7cm, W.6cm

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本器青玉雕琢, 體造型採透視法, 以舞女為中心, 左邊鳳鳥在舞女右側, 龍位於左側, 龍鳳在舞女下側連成一體, 表面飾一勾連雲紋. 舞女擺手扭腰, 頗具動感, 衣袖及裙子飾繩索紋淺浮雕. 本器雕琢細膩, 刀工精美, 增生晶體古玉跡象明顯. Carved with pale tone jade, the object is a jade plaque via perspective technique by placing a lady dancing sitting at the center surrounding by dragon on one side and the phoenix on other side. Low relief carving of connected cloud motif. Rope motifs are decorated for the skirt and the sleeve. Mastery  workmanship is presented by nice curving and thin incised lining of Warring States style. Antiquity evidences are additive crystals and calcification.

1207010214b444da05d0b417b83. 金村戰國雙玉舞人組佩1928年洛阳金村东周墓出土,现藏于美国Freer and Sackler Galleries – Smithsonian Institution.玉舞人著曲裾深衣,大束腰。二人外側手臂甩袖高過頭頂相連,另一側袖則從腰間橫甩至身體對側,自然垂墜,衣袖長而窄。

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4.高3.5厘米,寬3.5厘米,厚1厘米,1983年廣東廣州市象崗南越王墓出土,現為廣東省廣州市西漢南越王墓博物館藏。該玉舞人為玉黃白色,局部有缺損。整器雕工精細,姿態生動,為漢代出土玉舞人中首見的圓雕作品。

 

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.