玉鏡宸居-相互映輝的兩枚東漢玉鏡 Jade Mirrors in the Palace–Two Easten Han Jade Mirrors

《舊唐書·魏徵傳》:以銅為鏡,可以正衣冠,以史為鏡,可以知興替,以人為鏡,可以明得失。玉鏡更是中華玉文化不可或缺的一環。玉鏡指玉磨成的鏡子, 唐 白居易 《游悟真寺詩一百三十韻》:「六楹排玉鏡,四座敷金鈿。 」玉鏡又比喻明月。 唐 張子容 《璧池望秋月》詩:「滿輪沉玉鏡,半魄落銀鉤。本文試從圖騰及紋飾的角度比較兩枚東漢玉鏡。1. 東漢四靈獸玉鏡對,直徑 14公分及 13公分.  本器白玉雕琢,背面雕青龍,白虎, 朱雀, 玄武四靈獸淺浮雕, 中央有雙向鑽孔之半圓鈕, 本器鈣化之古玉跡象明顯。Eastern Han Dynasty, Jade Mirror, D.13-14cm.The dsc05168constellations or Xiù (宿) are grouped by the four directions, East, West, South and North.The dragon occupies the East and contains the constellations:角 (Jiăo) Horn,亢 (Kàng) Neck,氐 (Dĭ) Root,房 (Fáng) Room,心 (Xīn) Heart,尾 (Wěi) Tail箕 (Jī ) Winnowing basket.The tiger is in the West and contains the constellations:奎 (Kuí) Legs,娄 (Lóu) Bond,胃 (Wèi) Stomach,昴 (Mǎo) Hairy Head,毕 (Bì) Net,觜 (Zuǐ) Turtle Beak,參 (Cān) Join – Three Stars.The scarlet or vermillion bird is in the South and contains the constellations:井 (Jǐng) Well 鬼 (Guǐ) Demon,柳 (Lǐ) Willow,星 (Xīng) Star,张 (Zhāng) Growth,翼 (Yì) Wings,軫 (Zhěn) Deep emotionThe tortoise occupies the North and contains the constellations:斗 (Dǒu) Dipper,牛 (Níu) Ox,女 (Nǚ) Woman,虛 (Xū) Emptiness,危 (Wēi) Danger,室 (Shì) Room,壁 (Bì) Wall

dsc052541-12. 東漢龍鳳祭司紋玉鏡, 直徑8公分. 龍鳳係至為吉祥之物, 神面尤其是象徵萬物主宰。本器青玉雕琢,玉鏡造形,背面光滑,正面以淺浮雕技法為之,正中心飾祭司,身長羽毛,當可飛天, 服裝飾魚鱗, 應可潛水,玉鏡外圈左右飾龍鳳紋, 下方飾如意紋說構成的神面, 本器構圖疏密有致, 刀工精美流暢, 鈣化古玉跡象明顯。Dragon and phoenix are considered as auspicious animal and bird. God is the master of all beings. The jade 30500026n234580soq9mirror uses these motifs to show its auspicious nature. The priest in the center has  wings to imply his ability to fly. Fish scales are decorated for the dress to imply his ability to swim like fish. Carved with pale tone jade, this mirror is decorated with low relief dragon and phoenix at both sides of the outer ring of the mirror. At the bottom, a god’s face fabricated with ruyi is located at the bottom. With mastery craftsmanship, this jade mirror has antiquity of calcification. (right image is a portion of Shin Dynasty bronze mirror)

 

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