漢代宜子孫虺龍出廓玉璧, H.35.5cm, W.18.7cm, T.0.7cm

宜子孫璧的設計者在紋飾的呈現上進行了花式表演, 除了虺龍的背飾殼紋形成金錢圖像外, 銜接玉璧外緣的龍首, 以側面呈現, 祇雕琢單眼,似乎回眸一笑.

頭部銜接中央玉環虺龍腹部飾玉杯符號可能表示通天之門.

宜子孫璧出廓部分的龍圖騰與璧的虺龍不同

虺龍紋飾源自西周

漢代羊脂白玉白馬玉璧,直径50厘米,厚1.8厘米,重14.3磅, hole 9cms

春秋以後中大型玉璧大都區分為內外兩區, 外區代表天界, 內區代表地界, 天界大多飾神面龍鳳紋, 內區飾穀紋, 外區特別飾天門符號, 表示經由天門地界眾生可以進入天界, 此外, 各種宗教思想大都認為地界眾生有各種苦, 唯有進入天界(佛教的西方極樂世界, 其他宗教的天堂)才能離古得樂.行善要及時, 天國的大門並非永遠敞開的. 大玉璧已經苦口婆心地告訴世人.(盤玉及生坑開窗以主要紋飾漸近為之)龍的眼睛以三D技術呈現,祇出現在天門開的雙龍, 而且祇有一邊有, 現在可以更明確猜想西王母的話了: 每年春季, 春回大地, 向西誠心念我, 即可升天矣!從藝術的角度分析圖騰.大璧正面的周穆王訪西王母場景, 表面上周穆王尋求升天之道, 內涵是描繪人的一生, 有順境(雲鶴,狗,猴帶路),逆境(路上的猛獸), 逆境要克服(騎士射箭).山海經有獸身人首怪獸, 此為獸首人身是否與山海經相呼應《山海经》诸如人和野兽的混合形象形象就是远古各地的图腾神。 夏族的图腾是熊或鱼,商族的图腾是玄鸟,周族的图腾则有龙、鸟、龟、犬、虎诸说《史记·五帝本纪》记述黄帝“教熊罴貔貅躯虎,以与炎帝战于阪泉之野”,文中所言是各部落图腾,(右圖)裝了義肢(右腿)的神獸,由此證明東漢醫術之發達.圭,為中國古代用來祭祀之玉器、瑞器、禮器,為官位最高者所執。在玉器中,主祭東方。皇帝的圭稱為鎮圭.

白馬佔了玉璧四分之一的範圍, 強調此白馬之重要性, 漢明帝永平十二年白馬寺.白馬帶回來的經典是四十二章經, 其中第四章的內容就是的璧背面闡述的業力.玉器圖騰大小佔玉器比例有助於了解主題. 白馬身上飾如意吉祥紋彰顯馱佛經東來的善業功德.白馬為此璧主要圖騰.只有白馬身上有裝飾紋.底子的平坦達到完美無暇的境界.(都雍)始皇(嬴政莊襄王子)[0328b24] 四年西域沙門室利房等十八人。齎佛經來化。帝以其異俗囚之。夜有丈六金神破戶出之。帝驚稽首稱謝。以厚禮遣出境(朱上行經錄)

竹書紀年: 穆王,名滿, 十七年王西征昆崑丘, 見西王母, 其年西王母來朝, 賓于昭宮.

十八可能是一個隊伍的標準成員結構, 東漢明帝派遣十八人去印度求法,(都雍)始皇(嬴政莊襄王子)[0328b24] 四年西域沙門室利房等十八人。齎佛經來化,都是十八人.雕琢呈現手法包括穿雲龍.馬車馳騁的表現有三: 地上塵沙飛揚, 脫殭, 穆王衣裳隨風飄揚.周穆王雙手緊抱, 衣裳飄盪表示馬車飛馳

.Carved with white tone Hetian Jade, the object is bi with low relief carvings on both sides. On the front side, the scene of Emperor Moo of the Chou Dynasty’s expedition to the west to meet the Queen mother of the west is decorated. According to “annal of Chou” of “Records of the grand historian” Emperor Moo’s expedition to the West: In the seventeen years of Emperor Moo’s reign, Emperor Moo expedites to the West, for the purpose to meet the Queen Mother of the West. The second expedition will be arranged five years later.

On the top area of the bi, Queen mother of the west is sitting on a dragon bar signifying the palace of heaven, and two goddesses holding vajra and kwei respectively are sitting on the righthand sides to greet the guest from the east.   In the bottom area, Emperor Moo is sitting on a wagon driven by a knight. Around the wagon, a knight holding archery is protecting the wagon. In the rest area, many animal species on the ground and in the sky are shown.

On the backside of the bi, two sections are divided. The outer section is decorated with two dragons on the top, and two dragons on the bottom. Between the two dragons, a triangle shape with an opening at the top is decorated to signify the gate to heaven. The inner section is decorated with many sharp thorns signifying that hardship and bad things prevail on the earth. The only way to avoid that is to go to heaven via the gate to heaven( above image).  The carvings of the bi are of mastery with hole drilling and extra thin line carving.

With antiquity signs of differential weathering, dissolved pits, and calcification, it is a wonderful Han dynasty bi for professional collectors to acquire.

 

 

 

 

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