西周龍紋系璧, Western Zhou Dynasty Jade Bi, D. 3.5cm

 

 

The object is a jade bi carved with a dragon covering on both sides. The carving style exhibits that of Shang and Western Zhou dynaties. Calcification is the major antique evidence.

龍是鱗蟲之長,是中國古代神話傳說中的生物。龍的形象最基本的特點是”九似”,具體是哪九種動物尚有爭議,不過大多數人認為龍”角似鹿、頭似駝、眼似兔、項似蛇、腹似蜃、鱗似魚、爪似鷹、掌似虎、耳似牛”。傳說多稱龍能顯能隱,能細能巨,能短能長。春分則登天,秋分則潛淵,能呼風喚雨。茲將各種龍分述如下:

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-15T064957.129虺龍(huǐ):《述異記》載:”虺五百年化為蛟,蛟千年化為龍。”虺是龍的幼年期。虬龍(qiú):古代傳說中將沒有角的幼龍稱為虬龍。《說文解字》中說:”無角曰虬,有角曰龍”。螭(chī):螭是龍屬的蛇狀神怪之物,又叫蟠螭。是一種通體黃色而且沒有角的類龍生物,北方謂之為地螻。蛟龍:一般泛指能發洪水的有鱗的龍。相傳蛟龍得水即能興雲作霧,騰踔太空。《墨客揮犀》卷三說:”蛟之狀如蛇,其首如虎,長者至數丈,多居於溪潭石穴下,聲如牛鳴。”角龍:指有角的龍。據《述異記》記述:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍”。應龍:又作黃龍。背生雙翼的龍,據《述異記》記載:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍、千年為應龍。”據說當年軒轅帝的有名大將就是應龍,主要功績有斬殺蚩尤、夸父。火龍:傳說中全身被紅色的火焰包圍的龍。《清史稿》載:莒州赤龍見於龍王峪,先大後小,長數丈,所過草木如焚”。蟠龍:指蟄伏在地而未升天之龍。在《太平御覽》中,稱蟠龍”身長四丈,青黑色,赤帶如錦文,常隨水而下,入于unnamed (1)海。有毒,傷人即死。”行龍:傳說鯉魚化蛟,蛟又化龍,而當龍達到一定境界時,會化為行龍。青龍:在二十八星宿方位中,龍表示東方,屬青色,因此稱為”東宮青龍”。青龍為”四靈”或”四神”之一,又稱為蒼龍。蜃龍:蜃龍棲息在海岸或大河的河口,模樣很像蛟,也有可能是其中的一種。原文網址:https://kknews.cc/news/9z9zp9q.html:

本系璧凸面雙面一體雕琢, 淺浮雕蟠螭紋是唯一的圖騰, 系璧雙面為單一蟠螭所盤踞, 線條蜿蜒優美, 刀工具商周風格, 整體鈣化是主要的古玉跡象.

 

 

 

 

 

How to write an authentication report of Chinese antique jade, 如何撰寫古玉鑑定書

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-20T183426.653The object speaks column of Art History by Marilyn Stokstad may be a good example as a base to write an authentication report of Chinese antique jade object.

Here we would like to use the Shang Dynasty Jade Tiger as an example to write an authentication report.   THE OBJECT SPEAKS  LARGE PLANE TREES  ” Language in which the marks of the artist (the lines and colors) replace words as signs. In the 1960s and 1970s, structuralism evolved into other critical tools to determine what a painting may have to say, such as semiotics (the theory of signs and symbols) and deconstruction

To the semiologist, Large Plane Trees is an arrangement of colored marks on canvas. To decode the message, the critic is not concerned with the artists meaning or intention but rather with the signsvan Gogh used. The correctin terpretation is no longer of interest. Similarly, the deconstructionism of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida (b. 1930) questions all assumptions and frees the viewer from the search for a single, correct interpretation. So many interpretations emerge from the creative interaction between the viewer and the work of art that in the end the artwork is “deconstructed.” 

Today, critics and art historians have begun to reconsider artworks as tangible objects. Many have turned their attention from pure theory to a contextual or social history of art. Some have even taken up connoisseurship again

The existence of so many approaches to a work of art may lead us to the conclusion that any idea or opinion is equally valid. But art historians, regardless of their theoretical stance, would argue that the informed mind and eye are absolutely necessary. The creation of works of art remains a uniquely human activity, and knowledge of the history of art is essential if art is to truly speak to us.

In Vincent van Goghs Large Plane Trees, huge trees upward from an undulating earth as tiny men labor to re pair a street in the southern French town of SaintRémy. The painting depicts an ordinary scene in an ordinary little town. Although the canvas is unsigned, stylistic and technical analysis confirms its attribution to the PostImpressionist master Vincent van Gogh (185390). Large Plane Trees now hangs in The Cleveland Museum of Art Museum curators, who study and care for works of art, have analyzed its physical condition and formed opinions about its quality. They have also traced its provenance (the history of its ownership) from the time the painting left the artist‘s studio until the day it entered their collection

What Large Plane Trees says to us depends upon who we are. Art historians and art critics looking at this painting from the perspectives of their own specialties and approaches to the study of art’s history can and do see many different meanings. Thus, this art object speaks in various ways

Art historians steeped in the work of Sigmund Freud (18561939)whose psychoanalytic theory addresses creativity, the unconscious mind, and art as expression of re pressed feelingswill find in this painting images infused with psychoanalytic meaning. The painting, despite its light, bright colors, might seem to suggest something ominous in the uneasy relationship between the looming trees and tiny people. Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-20T184107.451

   In contrast to Freuds search into the individual psyche, the political philosopher Karl Marx (181883) saw human beings as products of their economic environment. Marxist art critics might see in van Goghs life and art a reflection of Marxs critique of humanitys over-concern with material values: van Gogh worked early in his life as a lay minister, identified with the underclass, and never achieved material success. This painting might also speak to such art critics of the economic structures that transform an unsalable nineteenthcentury painting into a twentiethcentury status symbol for the Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-17T171105.386wealthy eliteWorks of art can also be approached from a purely theoretical point of view. Early in the twentieth century, the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (18571913) developed the structuralist theory, which defines language as a system of arbitrary signs. ” Here we use Shang Dynasty tiger as an example, the aspects of jade’s authentication are as follows:Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-17T183954.965

  • Material Composition : Refractive index: 1.606 tested by GIA Duplex Refractometer
  • Form and Carving styles: The object is carved in the form of a  stretching tiger creeping on the ground. The carving style is a convex line forming from double incised lines.
  • Antiquity Authentication: Antiquity evidence includes dissolved pits, cleaving veins, and diffusive markings.
  • Period: Shang Dynasty.
  • Measurements: L. 17cm,W.3.5cm, 620grams.
  • Motifs identified: motifs characterizing Shang Dynasty including big eyes, mushroom-style ears which inherited the style of the pillar on the edge of the wine cup, bared  wire weapon and shield are weapons.

戰國龍紋玉瑗, Warring States Jade Ring, L.32 cms, H.19.3 cms

 

《爾雅•釋器》云:肉倍好謂之璧,好倍肉謂之瑗,肉好若一謂之環。《荀子大略》記載有「 問士以璧,召人以瑗,絕人以玦,反絕以環。」玉瑗是一種地位高者召見地位低者的信物。本器青黃色和田玉雕琢,玉龍鼻頭及下顎呈斧形,胸前及背上飾羽翼,前身站立在玉瑗之前,下半身盤在玉瑗內,尾部分叉,腹部飾捲草紋,整體龍身呈現威風凜凜。玉瑗一面為具戰國紋飾風格龍鳳紋淺浮雕,補白處飾游絲陰線抽象虎紋多處虎紋身上飾夌形雷紋,表示虎嘯如雷,虎紋邊緣再飾以網紋,以增強其立體感 ;  另一面則為代表國家社稷的勾連谷紋淺浮雕。本器意味著王者透過玉瑗將社稷重任委以有能力治理國家的文官及保家衛國的武將。全器刀工流暢精美, 有增生晶體及鈣化斑痕等古玉跡象。國立故宮博物院收藏之戰國玉瑗,青玉材質,孔徑3.35公分, 外徑6.4公分,兩面均有飾穀紋,有赭斑與深褐色沁。本器玉質精美,形制獨特雄偉,雕工流暢,紋飾華麗婉約,不是戰國王室,就是國之重臣所有,堪稱不可多得的戰國玉瑗重器。

    Er-Ya. Explaining Utensils : “A round plate whose edge is bigger than the hole is called ring.”  In Xunzi  Abstract   : “ To ask an advice from a scholar, you present him a jade bi. To call a person, you give him a jade ring.”  In Chinese jade culture, a jade ring is an object of evidence between the superior and the subordinate.

Carved with green-yellow tone hetian jade, this object is skillfully designed with a standing dragon coupling a jade ring of which one side carved with low relief dragon and phoenix at the bottom side on the front. On the top side and the dragon body, the abstract form of a tiger with thin incised lines, diamond shape net motif located insides the abstract tiger to imply the thunder sound from the tiger’s growling. Crop motif implying the country is carved on the other side of the jade ring.  The motifs carving with the Warring States style have shown extraordinary elegant. Antiquity evidence includes dissolved pits, additive crystal, and calcification. With the special design of this jade ring, this item must be owned by royal members or high ranking officials of the states in the period of Warring States. It is inevitably an item for connoisseurs collectors.


Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-14T163102.151

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-14T163750.160Appraisal Indexes:

  1. quality of jade: 10
  2. rareness: 10
  3. historical and cultural significance: 9
  4. workmanship: 10
  5. size:9
  6. condition: 10