紅山文化的圖像藝術, Iconography of Hongshan Culture Jades

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3975紅山文化玉器除了呈現形制外, 還借助於動物的特質來表現某些如速度相關的特質. 例如紅山文化以髮箍作為方便靈魂通往天界的媒介, 以馬呈現速度的快速, 再以馬前足向後彎曲表示馬呈奔馳的狀態, 馬首與馬前足之比例故意忽略, 完全從形而上的意念, 而忽略形而下的身體比例, 這種抽象藝術的技巧與大膽, 提供了後世印象派藝術的啟發作用. In addition to forms, the Hongshan Culture jades usually apply the unique characteristics of animal to express the way the jade to perform its intended function. For example, the Hongshan Culture jade hook here to guide the soul of the dead people to reach the heaven. The attache horse head with the front legs structure to show the speed to the heaven is as fast as the horse, the back bend front legs scream (1)are further to emphasize the speed of the process is as fast as the galloping of a horse. The image of the horse here is only shown the not proportional presentation of a true horse body. This kind of art technique may be an example of modern impression style of art works.

Proverb: Art consists in concealing art (Roman ).

玉箍形器是红山文化最具神秘感的器物之一

本文直接引用大毛說玉文章:

003szKb0gy6FQdobfZv29&690“这是一种高级神职人员通用的器具,一般位于头都,如有两只,则另一只会放在胸前。此物一般被认为是通天的法器,但是如果要通天,完全可以做成易于加工的圆筒,又何必做成扁的并且是喇叭形状的呢?牛河梁在被正式发掘之后,人们这才第一次看到玉箍形器在尸骨上的摆放位置,这对它用途的确认起到了关键的作用。这也说明了一个道理:一件离开了墓穴的古玉,等于破坏003szKb0gy6FQeiGCm17d&690了最重要的线索,对于考古工作者来说是多么无助!玉箍形器的小端通常有穿孔,有时一个,有时两个,有时连一个穿孔都没有。此墓打开以后,关于玉箍形器是红山古人的发箍的说法渐渐占了上风,但它仅仅只是发箍吗?《山海经》说,有神十人,名曰“女娲之肠”,本博以为所谓“女娲之肠”,指的就是这件东西,它是人类来到这个世界的出口。千百年来,东北亚盛行萨满教,萨满教最高的神不是上帝,dscn17981而是“长生天”。成吉思汗自称“天可汗”,这是蒙古萨满给他的封号,天之骄子也。而商周以来,中国的帝王们无不自称为“天子”。是“天子”就必须加冕,就必须把一个象征“天生”的东西戴在头上,这个东西就是“冕”。女娲既可补天,说明她不是一般的地神,而是天神,否则天破了个洞,地神如何“补”得?后世的天子只有一个,所谓“天无二日”也,但在6000年前,天子未必就只一个,以天子自居的可能是一群高级神职人员。这些高级神职人员各有其能,也就是各有分工,所以,除了共同拥有表示天子身份的玉箍之外,其余的法器,也就不尽相同了。

 

紅山文化太陽神, Hongshan Culture, Apollo(Sun God), H.11cm, W.4cm

 

紅山文化崇尚大自然, 掌管大自然的神祇應該也就成為崇拜的對象, 陽光, 空氣和水是萬物生命不可或缺的原素, 太陽神應該就是紅山文化所崇拜的對象. 本器青黃玉雕琢, 眼睛碩大呈水滴形, 狀似外星人, 耳朵寬大向兩側張開, 嘴唇扁平寬大, 頭部向上拉長, 中央有兩個開口的孔, 形狀如二角, 頸部背面有兩個內部貫穿的象鼻孔, 雙手握拳置於腰部, 雙腳相連形成孔狀體. 本器之設計巧妙具神秘感, 古玉跡象為擴散暈沁色及鈣化. Carved with apple green tone jade, the object is a statue of Hongshan Culture sun god. Having shape of water drop, the eye is big. The ears are wide open. The forehead having shape of horns  is elongated upright with two open holes at the center. Two bulged holes are located on the back of neck. Both hands are resting on the hips, the legs are connected into a hole handle. The total design is well designed and has a mystery effect. Antiquity evidences include diffusive markings and calcification.

Proverb: The sun loses nothing by shining into a puddle (Greek).