Hongshan Culture ,紅山文化(3500-2500BCE)Jade Carving Style

Artisans from the Hongshan Culture emphasized the shape of an object rather than details of lines or motifs. In addition to single entity designs, many Hongshan Culture jades have complex design from different entity. For example, there are jade knifes with dragon and phoenix handle, jade knife with horse head handle.  Dual holes called holes of bugle shape on the same side of the artifacts are usually seen but its implication still remains unknown.  The dragon and phoenix motifs of Hongshan Culture are believed the origins of those motifs for later periods in the Chinese jade artifact’s history. Also read Jades of the Hongshan culture – Elizabeth Childs-Johnson

紅山文化主要分佈在內蒙古東南部和遼寧西部地區,紅山文化因首次發現於中國內蒙古自治區赤峰紅山而得名,距今五、六千年左右,延續時間達二千年之久。紅山文化的社會形態處於母系氏族社會的全盛時期.紅山文化的玉料除了岫岩玉外, 有許多是透閃石玉。 紅山文化的內涵十分豐富,玉器大多取材大自然之飛禽走獸, 寫實與抽象均頗具神韻, 紅山文化的玉器造型多以圓形的弧線為主, 其特色是原始及質樸, 剛勁挺拔, 渾圓飽滿, 以形取勝. 大多數的玉器具有同面的內部貫穿喇叭形孔, 俗稱像鼻孔, 孔道彎曲, 外寬內窄, 孔壁呈現薄砣具所琢出之細陰線. 紅山文化玉器的形制甚為多樣化, 玉龍玉鳥則為典型的造型, 而且被認為是後世玉器中龍鳳圖騰起源的重要證據, 本網站的龍鳳玉刀, 已經明顯出現同一件玉器上龍鳳組合之紋飾。

Hongshan Culture Collar Bi, D. 23cm, 1400grams

 

001

本件紅山文化領緣玉璧,內領緣呈圓滑弧形,內領緣呈垂直平面。全器增生晶面、次生結晶體、溶蝕孔、差異風化等古玉跡象明顯。紅山文化以後曾見領緣玉璧, 例如,1976婦好墓出土, 中國社會科學院考古研究所藏 D. 18.6cm, hole edge H.1.4cm, T. 0.4cm者.

Bi is one of the ritual jade in ancient China. This Hongshan Culture collar bi is similar to the Shang Dynasty collar bi (D. 18.6cm, hole edge H.1.4cm, T. 0.4cm) unearthed in 1976 from Fuhow graveyUFO  Flying saucer UHD 8K00031ard,  A collection of Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, In general, bi is the ritual jade used to dedicated the heaven. The surface of this collar bi is plain, while the surface of the Shang Dynasty collar bi has circles of increasing size from the center hole towards the outer edge. The evidence of antiquity includes dissolved pits and additive crystal.
The collar bi of Hongshan Culture may be a simplified image of ancient flying saucer

Appraisal Indexes:

  1. quality of jade: 8
  2. rareness: 8
  3. historical and cultural significance: 9
  4. workmanship: 9
  5. size:10
  6. condition: 10

 

Hongshan Culture Horse Head Jade Knife, 紅山文化馬首刀L. 42cm, 2500grams

003szkb0zy6wtkzchuh8d690Made of nephrite, this jade artifact is emphasized in shape rather than the lines of curvature appeared on the surface as by many Hongshan Culture jade. With horse head as the handle of the knife whose design has bold and rough style, this jade knife has the form of the most typical shape of an ancient Chinese weapon knife.  As short mane and mouth looking of the horse is seen, it may be  Mongolian Tarpan of five thousand years ago. The horse style of the jade knife has shown that it is the horse found in Mongolia which belongs to the geographical area of the Hongshan culture. Dissolved pits and additive crystals are seen in various areas of the knife

240px-equus_przewalskii_shinjang本器刀把為馬首造型, 本器之玉質為和田玉種, 全器滿布增生晶體,多處有溶蝕孔及差異風化, 古玉現象明顯. 本件馬首玉刀之短鬃短嘴形態係古蒙古Tarpan種馬.本器系紅山文化類似形制中屬於大件之精品.

50135902_1
 Appraisal Indexes:
1. quality of jade: 8
2. rareness: 9
3. historical and cultural significance: 8
4. workmanship: 9
5. size:9
6. condition: 10