紅山文化中象徵權力的玉器造型

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刀斧等是殺戮利器, 鷹能遨翔天際, 掌天空霸權, 馬奔騰於大地. 這些紅山玉器以鷹首, 馬首與刀斧組合, 象徵無上的權力. 本文這兩件玉器(紅山文化馬首刀, L. 42cm, 2500grams; 鷹首斧, L. 25cm, H. 15cm,1060grams) 就是最好的寫照. 紅山玉器造型主題十分多元, 除了有象徵無上的權力外, 還有以大自然景象, 如玉蟬, 彩虹, 還有宗教信仰為主題.158733814414739643158733832237387624

紅山文化玉青蛙, Hongshan Culture Jade Frog, L.6cm, W.4.5cm, H. 2cm

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本器白玉雕琢, 形制為青蛙, 雕琢工藝俱紅山文化雕琢風格, 四肢肥碩, 眼睛突起, 眼皮施凹陷圓孔, 腹面頸部施兩相通象鼻孔. 古玉跡象為差異風化, 擴散暈沁色, 溶蝕孔及冰裂紋. 青蛙與蟾蜍 就外型而言,青蛙和蟾蜍是兩種不同典型的蛙類。 青蛙一般具有光滑、濕潤的表皮,四肢纖細善於跳躍,例如生物實驗用的牛蛙。蟾蜍俗稱癩蛤蟆,牠們的四肢粗短行動緩慢,皮膚粗糙有許多小疙瘩。眼睛後面還有一對會分泌毒液的大型突出的腺體,稱之為耳後腺或腮腺,青蛙沒有。青蛙和蟾蜍在中國玉文化中均佔有一席之地.

古代埃及神話中,有一位專司創造與生育的女神,她的外型為一隻蛙,或者是頭上有隻蛙、甚至Noname是蛙頭人身的婦女-赫凱特(Heket)。據說赫凱特為造物之神赫努姆(Khnum)之妻,相傳,她與赫努姆在石樽上共同造人。所以,婦女在產期將至時,都要配戴赫凱特的神像,以保佑分娩順利。赫凱特又被視為家庭保護神,庇佑家家戶戶逢凶化吉。

  然而,古埃及人會將豐饒女神-赫凱特的形象設定為青蛙,這是因為他們認為青蛙具有生生不息的意味;甚至認為:青蛙就是未成形的人,而由赫凱特賦予生命。紅山文化的先民是否也具有同樣的信仰呢?!

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。Carved with white jade, the object is a frog with a Hongshan Culture carving style. The frog has four stout legs and Protruding eyes. Eyelids have concave round holes. A double side bugle shape holes pertinent to Hongshan culture is located at the neck on the back side. Antiquity evidence has differential weathering, dissolved pits, and cleaving veins. frogs have the characteristics of two bulging eyes, strong, long, webbed hind feet that are adapted for leaping and swimming. Toads are characterized by stubby bodies with short hind legs for walking instead of hopping. Both frogs and toads are popular motifs in Chinese jade culture.

 

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紅山文化的圖像藝術, Iconography of Hongshan Culture Jades

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3975紅山文化玉器除了呈現形制外, 還借助於動物的特質來表現某些如速度相關的特質. 例如紅山文化以髮箍作為方便靈魂通往天界的媒介, 以馬呈現速度的快速, 再以馬前足向後彎曲表示馬呈奔馳的狀態, 馬首與馬前足之比例故意忽略, 完全從形而上的意念, 而忽略形而下的身體比例, 這種抽象藝術的技巧與大膽, 提供了後世印象派藝術的啟發作用. In addition to forms, the Hongshan Culture jades usually apply the unique characteristics of animal to express the way the jade to perform its intended function. For example, the Hongshan Culture jade hook here to guide the soul of the dead people to reach heaven. The attache horse head with the front legs structure to show the speed to the heaven is as fast as the horse, the backbend front legs scream (1)are further to emphasize the speed of the process is as fast as the galloping of a horse. The image of the horse here is only shown the not proportional presentation of a true horse body. This kind of art technique may be an example of modern impression style of art works.

Proverb: Art consists in concealing art (Roman ).

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.