东周黄玉瑞兽玉佩饰,Eastern Zhou Dynasty Jade Plaque, L.22cm

Sold for 26,570,000 HKD at the Sotheby HK April 2019 Auction

古玉界 4月3日

瑞兽造形融合现实与想象,线条流利优雅,满富韵律感,曲直之间,勾勒猛兽慑人姿态,兽身细琢阴刻,浮雕纹饰隐约,刚柔并济,气势万千。

存世兽形佩虽大同小异,然现例之腿部以阴刻曲线做凤鸟纹与龙纹,独树一格,突显当朝常贝鸟兽纹羽状、曲卷的特征,设计流畅简约,精练脱俗,无冗赘之处,寥寥数笔已明确捕捉神兽气韻。

Integrated with reality and imagination,  the auspicious animal has been carved with elegant and gracious lines.  Full of rhythmic feeling, the curved and straight presentation has depicted the animal fierce posture. The total curving of motifs has vaguely shown that mixed with strong and soft elements full of variation.

While exiting jade plaques with similar shape and size are common, this jade plaque is unique that the intaglio phoenix and dragon motif on the jade plaque is marvelously present the characteristics of Eastern Zhou Dynasty style. With all these excellent elements, this jade plaque worth the price it settles at this Sotheby spring auction.

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東漢白玉貔貅, Eastern Han Dynasty Jade Pixie, L.18cm, H.10cm, W.6cm

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本器白玉雕琢, 形制為貔貅, 貔貅又稱辟邪獸,「貔貅」較早的文獻出處有以下數個:

  1. 尚書·牧誓》:「如虎如貔」《傳》:「貔,一名執夷,虎屬也」說明西漢初年的孔安國認為貔貅與虎同類,另「執夷」可能就是「貔」的緩讀。
  2. 在 《史記·五帝本紀》中,黃帝曾經訓練猛獸建立軍隊,其中包括六種猛獸,熊、羆、貔、貅、貙、虎[1]。《索隱》:「《爾雅》云「貔,白狐」」...郭璞云:「《書》稱猛士如虎如貔。貔蓋豹屬,亦曰執夷,白狐之云似是而非。」從這裡可知道西漢初年的《爾雅》與晉代郭璞對於「貔」的解釋顯然不同。
  3. 周禮‧大司徒》:「臝物虎豹貔[豸禽]之屬。」鄭眾:「貔即貅也,云淺毛者。若以淺毛言之則入臝蟲中。」這說明東漢的鄭眾認為貔貅是短毛的獸。
  4. 說文解字》:「豹屬,出貉國。」說明東漢末年的許慎認為貔貅與豹同類。
  5. 《詩·大雅》:「獻其貔皮。」陸璣疏:「貔似虎,或曰似熊,遼東謂之白熊。」說明晉代陸璣認為貔貅像虎又像熊,在遼東則稱為白熊。《禮記‧曲禮》:「貔貅」鄭玄注:「貔貅,亦摯獸也。《書》曰:如虎如貔士或為仕。」賈公彥疏:「貔貅者摯獸,猛而能擊,謂虎狼之属也。貔貅,是一獸,亦有威猛也。」此處說明唐朝的賈公彥認為貔貅是一種猛獸。

本件貔貅兩側施翼, 頭頂呈現一角, 張嘴露齒吐舌. 呈匍匐狀, 四肢張力十足, 尾巴拉長盤桓地上, 讓人產生神秘的感覺.古玉跡象為差異風化, 擴散暈沁色及溶蝕孔. Carved with white jade, the object is a pixie with wings on both sides. With an open mouth, the tongue is stretched out and teeth are sharp.  The pixie is crouching on the ground showing mighty legs and curling tail. Antiquity evidence includes differential weathering, dissolved pits, and calcification.

pixie故宮對貔貅的解說: <此為玉辟邪,又名貔貅,為一種神獸。相傳龍生九子, 各有神通。此神獸因為很得玉帝寵愛,某日竟隨地大小 便,玉帝踩到就很生氣,往牠屁股一打。從此就沒肛門。 因為祂喜歡吃金銀財寶,又只進不出。故很多人都把他 奉為發財的神獸,將祂擺在家中或公司的財位,更可以 趨吉避煞。當你覺得財運不佳時,請記得把祂搖一搖, 因為祂也是很貪睡的,搖醒後才能繼續幫主人咬錢回來。 另外很重要的事,千萬不可以買貔貅來送人,這樣會把 財運送給別人喔。>

三星堆文化持玉琮祭司 Sanxingdui Culture Holding Cong Priest, H.45cms

prestcong11dscn2511a本器持玉琮祭司, 通高45cm, 和田白玉雕琢係由下列五個部份黏合而成: 祭司腿部以上, 雙腳, 內角方座, 四面鳳首座, 鏤空底座.  祭司的眼睛及鳳眼神係為圓柱造型, 可能表示千里眼; 祭司的大型蝶式耳朵可能表示順風耳. 祭司的頭冠呈緇布冠造型, 服飾施游絲勾卷雲紋, 內角方座的斜刀雷紋, 鏤空底座的绹紋都是典型的戰國紋飾. 古玉跡象有擴散暈沁色,差異風化及斑晶等古玉現象.  本器為玉祭司組之一, 刀工流暢嚴謹, 玉質精美,實乃三星堆文化玉器中之極品.This is the set of four pieces. Each one is composed with five separate pieces which are the priest’s body above from the legs, the two legs, the stand with a backward angle, the phoenix headstand with four faces, and the openwork base. The exaggerate presentation of protruding eyes of the priest and the phoenix had the stick design to imply the powerful eyesight. The big butterfly wind style ears of the priest may have the implication of powerful hearing. The dress, the carving style of thin incised line with cloud motifs, the slant carving of thunder and the open work with a rope motif all confirm the typical art genre of the Warring States.  Made of white Hetian nephrite with additive crystal, dissolved pits, differential weathering and diffusive markings, coupled with historical significance, cultural importance, artistic implication and mastery workmanship( please be noted that the multiple contours and the detail of curvature shown in the design of the shoulder has explained the mastery workmanship which modern copy would never know. In addition, the beautiful contour surface of the phoenix on the base also explained it all), this set of jade priests is believed to be the definitive, topknot collection of the Sanxingdui Culture jade.

1929年(一說1931年)春,四川廣漢縣(今廣漢市)城西18裡太平場附近真武宮南側燕氏宅旁發現大批玉石器,其中不少種類在形制上與傳世和其他地區出土的同類器型不同,引起有關方面注意。 1930年,英籍牧師董宜篤(A.H.Donnithone)函約成都華西大學教授戴謙和(D.S.Dye)同往調查,獲得一批玉器。1932年秋,成都金石名家龔熙台稱從燕氏購得玉器4件,撰《古玉考》一文,發表於《成都東方美術專科學校校刊》創刊號(1935),文中認為燕宅旁發現的玉器坑為蜀望帝葬所。1946年7月,華西大學博物館出版了鄭德坤教授的《四川古代文化史》,作為該館專刊之一。在這部著作裡,鄭德坤把“廣漢文化”作為一個專章加以討論研究,從調查經過、土坑遺物、文化層遺物、購買所得遺物、廣漢文化時代之推測等五個方面詳加分析,不同意葛維漢、林名均提出的墓葬之說,認為廣漢出土玉石器的土坑應為晚週祭山埋玉遺址,其年代約為公元前700~前500年.1941年,古史辨大師顧頡剛在四川發表重要論文《古代巴蜀與中原的關係說及其批判》,清理了古代文獻中有關巴蜀的多數材料,徹底否定幾千年來人們信奉不二的“巴蜀出於黃帝說”,首次提出“巴蜀文化獨立發展說”,認為巴蜀融合中原文化是戰國以來的事。

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