東漢白玉貔貅, Eastern Han Dynasty Jade Pixie, L.18cm, H.10cm, W.6cm

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本器白玉雕琢, 形制為貔貅, 貔貅又稱辟邪獸,「貔貅」較早的文獻出處有以下數個:

  1. 尚書·牧誓》:「如虎如貔」《傳》:「貔,一名執夷,虎屬也」說明西漢初年的孔安國認為貔貅與虎同類,另「執夷」可能就是「貔」的緩讀。
  2. 在 《史記·五帝本紀》中,黃帝曾經訓練猛獸建立軍隊,其中包括六種猛獸,熊、羆、貔、貅、貙、虎[1]。《索隱》:「《爾雅》云「貔,白狐」」...郭璞云:「《書》稱猛士如虎如貔。貔蓋豹屬,亦曰執夷,白狐之云似是而非。」從這裡可知道西漢初年的《爾雅》與晉代郭璞對於「貔」的解釋顯然不同。
  3. 周禮‧大司徒》:「臝物虎豹貔[豸禽]之屬。」鄭眾:「貔即貅也,云淺毛者。若以淺毛言之則入臝蟲中。」這說明東漢的鄭眾認為貔貅是短毛的獸。
  4. 說文解字》:「豹屬,出貉國。」說明東漢末年的許慎認為貔貅與豹同類。
  5. 《詩·大雅》:「獻其貔皮。」陸璣疏:「貔似虎,或曰似熊,遼東謂之白熊。」說明晉代陸璣認為貔貅像虎又像熊,在遼東則稱為白熊。《禮記‧曲禮》:「貔貅」鄭玄注:「貔貅,亦摯獸也。《書》曰:如虎如貔士或為仕。」賈公彥疏:「貔貅者摯獸,猛而能擊,謂虎狼之属也。貔貅,是一獸,亦有威猛也。」此處說明唐朝的賈公彥認為貔貅是一種猛獸。

本件貔貅兩側施翼, 頭頂呈現一角, 張嘴露齒吐舌. 呈匍匐狀, 四肢張力十足, 尾巴拉長盤桓地上, 讓人產生神秘的感覺.古玉跡象為差異風化, 擴散暈沁色及溶蝕孔. Carved with white jade, the object is a pixie with wings on both sides. With an open mouth, the tongue is stretched out and teeth are sharp.  The pixie is crouching on the ground showing mighty legs and curling tail. Antiquity evidence includes differential weathering, dissolved pits, and calcification.

pixie故宮對貔貅的解說: <此為玉辟邪,又名貔貅,為一種神獸。相傳龍生九子, 各有神通。此神獸因為很得玉帝寵愛,某日竟隨地大小 便,玉帝踩到就很生氣,往牠屁股一打。從此就沒肛門。 因為祂喜歡吃金銀財寶,又只進不出。故很多人都把他 奉為發財的神獸,將祂擺在家中或公司的財位,更可以 趨吉避煞。當你覺得財運不佳時,請記得把祂搖一搖, 因為祂也是很貪睡的,搖醒後才能繼續幫主人咬錢回來。 另外很重要的事,千萬不可以買貔貅來送人,這樣會把 財運送給別人喔。>

戰國龍紋銘文玉文鎮, Warring States Jade Paperweight, H.7cm, W.4.3cm

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IMG_2790本器青玉雕琢, 形制為螭龍紋雙立柱文鎮, 正面施螭龍紋高浮雕, 背面陰刻篆體”孔君玉平兄正文定”.文定,或稱送定、納吉、下插定,又稱「小聘」(「大聘」則指「納徵」或「過大禮」),是古代傳統婚禮的訂婚儀式之一, 本器雙立柱意涵男女雙方雙姓聯結之意。本器古玉跡象為差異風化, 擴散暈沁色及溶蝕孔. Carved with pale tone jade, the object is a double column connected by high relief dragon carving on the front side, scripts of <孔君玉平兄正文定> incised carving appeared on the other side. The meaning of the script reads < For the engagement ceremony of Mr. Kuong>. Antiquity evidence is differential weathering, diffusive markings, and dissolved pits.

紅山文化玉青蛙, Hongshan Culture Jade Frog, L.6cm, W.4.5cm, H. 2cm

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本器白玉雕琢, 形制為青蛙, 雕琢工藝俱紅山文化雕琢風格, 四肢肥碩, 眼睛突起, 眼皮施凹陷圓孔, 腹面頸部施兩相通象鼻孔. 古玉跡象為差異風化, 擴散暈沁色, 溶蝕孔及冰裂紋. 青蛙與蟾蜍 就外型而言,青蛙和蟾蜍是兩種不同典型的蛙類。 青蛙一般具有光滑、濕潤的表皮,四肢纖細善於跳躍,例如生物實驗用的牛蛙。蟾蜍俗稱癩蛤蟆,牠們的四肢粗短行動緩慢,皮膚粗糙有許多小疙瘩。眼睛後面還有一對會分泌毒液的大型突出的腺體,稱之為耳後腺或腮腺,青蛙沒有。青蛙和蟾蜍在中國玉文化中均佔有一席之地.dscn052111

。Carved with white jade, the object is a frog with a Hongshan Culture carving style. The frog has four stout legs and Protruding eyes. Eyelids have concave round holes. A double side bugle shape holes pertinent to Hongshan culture is located at the neck on the back side. Antiquity evidence has differential weathering, dissolved pits, and cleaving veins. frogs have the characteristics of two bulging eyes, strong, long, webbed hind feet that are adapted for leaping and swimming. Toads are characterized by stubby bodies with short hind legs for walking instead of hopping. Both frogs and toads are popular motifs in Chinese jade culture.

 

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