東漢青玉孫子兵法用間篇(後半部)銘文狩獵圖出廓榖紋玉璧,Eastern Han Dynasty Jade bi with Scripts of Employing Spies, Art of War by Sun Tzu(part 2), H.55,5cm, T. 0.7cm

WeChat 圖片_20180725225722本器和田青玉雙面雕琢,形制為鏤空出廓玉璧。出廓部分施榖紋璧鏤空龍紋。玉璧外區飾狩獵紋, 內區飾榖紋, 中央施鏤空鳳紋; 另一面雕琢孫子兵法用間篇後段『仁義不能使間,非微妙不能得間之實。微哉!微哉!無所不用間也。間事未發,而先聞者,間與所告者皆死。凡軍之所欲擊,城之所欲攻,人之所欲殺,必先知其守將、左右、謁者、門者、舍人之姓名,令吾間必索知之。必索敵人之間來間我者,因而利之,導而舍之,故反間可得而用也。因是而知之,故鄉間、內間可得而使也;因是而知之,故死間為誑事可使告敵;因是而知之,故生間可使如期。五間之事,君必知之,知之必在于反間』篆體銘文。本器多處紋飾邊緣存在以管鑽進行游絲毛雕為之的痕跡。本器紋飾神秘華麗, 刀工精美, 佐以孫子兵法銘文, 歷史文化價值鉅大, 本器古玉跡象有擴散暈沁色,冰裂紋及差異風化等。(台灣頤和園博物館藏品, 陳明杰鑑賞並撰文)

WeChat 圖片_20180725225759

Having local spies means employing the services of the inhabitants of a district. Having inward spies, making use of officials of the enemy. Having converted spies, getting hold of the enemy’s spies and using them for our own purposes. Having doomed spies, doing certain things openly for purposes of deception, and allowing our spies to know of them and report them to the enemy. Surviving spies, finally, are those who bring back news from the enemy’s camp.
Hence it is that which none in the whole army are more intimate relations to be maintained than with spies. None should be more liberally rewarded. In no other business should greater secrecy be preserved? Spies cannot be usefully employed without a certain intuitive sagacity. They cannot be properly managed without benevolence and straightforwardness. Without subtle ingenuity of mind, one cannot make certain of the truth of their reports.
Be subtle! be subtle! and use your spies for every kind of business. If a secret piece of news is divulged by a spy before the time is ripe, he must be put to death together with the man to whom the secret was told.
Whether the object is to crush an army, to storm a city, or to assassinate an individual, it is always necessary to begin by finding out the names of the attendants, the aides-de-camp, and door-keepers and sentries of the general in command. Our spies must be commissioned to ascertain these.
The enemy’s spies who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with bribes, led away and comfortably housed. Thus they will become converted spies and available for our service.
It is through the information brought by the converted spy that we are able to acquire and employ local and inward spies. It is owing to his information, again, that we can cause the doomed spy to carry false tidings to the enemy. Lastly, it is by his information that the surviving spy can be used on appointed occasions.
The end and aim of spying in all its five varieties is knowledge of the enemy; and this knowledge can only be derived, in the first instance, from the converted spy. Hence it is essential that the converted spy be treated with the utmost liberality.
Of old, the rise of the Yin dynasty was due to I Chih who had served under the Hsia. Likewise, the rise of the Chou dynasty was due to Lu Ya who had served under the Yin. Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the wise general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of spying and thereby they achieve great results. Spies are a most important element in water because on them depends an army’s ability to move.( Peace Garden Museum Taiwan Collection, Scripts by Prof. Chen)

東漢青玉孫子兵法用間篇(前半部)銘文龍鳳紋出廓玉璧,Eastern Han Dynasty Jade bi with Scripts of Employing Spies, Art of War by Sun Tzu(part 1), H.61cm, T. 0.7cm

-尺寸長61公分-圓直徑41.5公分-厚0.7公分-雙面不同圖檔-一面字-一面圖本器和田青玉雙面雕琢,形制為鏤空出廓玉璧。出廓部分施鏤空變體龍鳳紋。玉璧飾變體天神龍鳳熊紋; 另一面雕琢孫子兵法用間篇『孫子曰:凡興師十萬,出征千里,百姓之費,公家之奉,日費千金,內外騷動,怠於道路,不得操事者,七十萬家。相守數年,以爭一日之勝,而愛爵祿百金,不知敵之情者,不仁之至也,非人之將也,非主之佐也,非勝之主也.故明君賢將,所以動而勝人,成功出於眾者,先知也。先知者,不可取於鬼神,不可象於事,不可驗於度,必取於人,知敵之情者也。故用間有五:有鄉間,有內間,有反間,有死間,有生間。五間俱起,莫知其道,是謂「神紀」,人君之寶也。』篆體銘文。本器多處紋飾邊緣存在以管鑽進行游絲毛雕為之的痕跡。本器紋飾神秘華麗, 刀工精美, 佐以孫子兵法銘文, 歷史文化價值鉅大, 本器古玉跡象有擴散暈沁色,冰裂紋及差異風化等。(台灣頤和園博物館藏品, 陳明杰鑑賞並撰文)

WeChat 圖片_20180725231917

Sun Tzu said: Raising a host of a hundred thousand men and marching them great distances entails a heavy loss on the people and a drain on the resources of the State. The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces of silver. There will be a commotion at home and abroad, and men will drop down exhausted on the highways. As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded in their labor.
Hostile armies may face each other for years, striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy’s condition simply because one grudge the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height of inhumanity. One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present help to his sovereign, no master of victory. Thus, what enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.
Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits; it cannot be obtained inductively from experience, nor by any deductive calculation. Knowledge of the enemy’s dispositions can only be obtained from other men.
Hence the use of spies, of whom there are five classes: (1) Local spies; (2) inward spies; (3) converted spies; (4) doomed spies; (5) surviving spies. When these five kinds of spy are all at work, none can discover the secret system. This is called “divine manipulation of the threads.” It is the sovereign’s most precious faculty.( Peace Garden Museum Taiwan Collection, Scripts by Prof. Chen)

東漢青玉出師表(後半部)銘文鳳榖紋出廓玉璧,高度68.5公分, 圓直徑45.8公分厚1.2公分

WeChat 圖片_20180725233122a本器和田青玉雙面雕琢,形制為鏤空出廓玉璧。出廓部分上方中央施圓形鏤空變體龍紋, 兩側施回首鳳紋。玉璧一面分兩層, 外層飾變體龍鳳紋, 內層飾榖紋; 另一面飾部分出師表『大小, 悉以咨之, 然後施行, 必能裨補闕漏, 有所廣益, 將軍向寵, 性行淑均, 曉暢軍事, 試用之於昔日, 先帝稱之曰能, 是以衆議舉寵爲督, 愚以爲營中之事,悉以咨之, 必能使行陣和睦, 優劣得所, 親賢臣,遠小人,此先漢所以興隆也; 親小人,遠賢臣, 此後漢所以傾頹也, 先帝在時,每與臣論此事, 未嘗不歎息痛恨於桓靈也, 侍中,尚書,長史參軍』後段篆體銘文。本器多處紋飾邊緣存在以管鑽進行游絲毛雕為之的痕跡。本器紋飾神秘華麗, 刀工精美, 佐以出師表銘文, 歷史文化價值鉅大, 本器古玉跡象有擴散暈沁色,冰裂紋及差異風化等。(台灣頤和園博物館藏品, 陳明杰鑑賞並撰文).jpg

in the palace, could be scrutinized by them before the execution, and then
there shouldn’t be any errors. General Shang Chong is a virtuous person with plenty of military knowledge. The late emperor praised him able when he was in his probation period. Thus everyone suggested he be the marshal. I think you could entrust him to manage everything in the army and he must be able to consolidate all soldiers and arrange a due post for each one. Getting along with the wise and virtuous courtiers and leaving away the vile and pleasing people, that’s how the West Han Dynasty rose.
Getting along with latter and leaving away the former, that’s why the East Han Dynasty fell. Whenever the late Emperor talked about it with me, he always repented of what Emperor Hwan and Emperor Ling had done. The ministers, vice ministers, administrators, and staff are all loyal and virtuous courtiers.( the following not shown ) I wish you could believe and trust them, and the imperial family of Han will rise again in the near future.

I was just a common farmer cultivating alone in Nan-Yang. I just wished to survive in such a chaotic world without being known to any princes. The late emperor didn’t care about my humble background and degraded himself to visit my shabby hut three times in person to ask me about the situation under the heaven. I was so grateful to him that I promised him to devote myself to him for all my life to return his grace. Later, since we were seriously defeated and nearly terminated twenty-one years ago, I have
been assigned the position of the general military advisor. The former emperor knew I am prudent, thus he entrusted me the important missions when he was passing away. Since the grand assignment, for every day and night, in fear of staining the late emperor’s reputation, I have been worried if I fulfill the mission which the late emperor entrusted me. This May we crossed the Lu River and marched into the deep sterile field. Now the south is all pacified, and the arms and soldiers are both fully
recruited, it’s time that I, with all my endeavors, lead the troops northward to regain the central land, expulse the vile villains, restore the Han Dynasty, and resettle in the ancient capital. This is all I could do to return the late emperor’s grace and fulfill the position you grant to me. When it comes to weighing the benefit of the loss and advising, Yo-Chi, Yi, and Yun will take their responsibility. I wish you could entrust me the mission of eliminating all the national rascals. If I fail
to achieve it, I’m willing to take the punishment to console the soul of the late emperor. If Yo-Chi, Yi, and Yun fail to well advice, they should also be punished to demonstrate their mistakes. And your imperial majesty, you should also speculate for yourself and accept all good advice to follow the edict the late emperor left to you. I couldn’t be more grateful to your and the late emperor’s favor. Now I’m leaving, in front of this manifesto with tears on my face, I don’t know what I’ve said.)( Peace Garden Museum Taiwan Collection, Scripts by Prof. Chen)