漢代羊脂白玉白馬玉璧,直径50厘米,厚1.8厘米,重14.3磅, hole 9cms

春秋以後中大型玉璧大都區分為內外兩區, 外區代表天界, 內區代表地界, 天界大多飾神面龍鳳紋, 內區飾穀紋, 外區特別飾天門符號, 表示經由天門地界眾生可以進入天界, 此外, 各種宗教思想大都認為地界眾生有各種苦, 唯有進入天界(佛教的西方極樂世界, 其他宗教的天堂)才能離古得樂.行善要及時, 天國的大門並非永遠敞開的. 大玉璧已經苦口婆心地告訴世人.(盤玉及生坑開窗以主要紋飾漸近為之)龍的眼睛以三D技術呈現,祇出現在天門開的雙龍, 而且祇有一邊有, 現在可以更明確猜想西王母的話了: 每年春季, 春回大地, 向西誠心念我, 即可升天矣!從藝術的角度分析圖騰.大璧正面的周穆王訪西王母場景, 表面上周穆王尋求升天之道, 內涵是描繪人的一生, 有順境(雲鶴,狗,猴帶路),逆境(路上的猛獸), 逆境要克服(騎士射箭).山海經有獸身人首怪獸, 此為獸首人身是否與山海經相呼應《山海经》诸如人和野兽的混合形象形象就是远古各地的图腾神。 夏族的图腾是熊或鱼,商族的图腾是玄鸟,周族的图腾则有龙、鸟、龟、犬、虎诸说《史记·五帝本纪》记述黄帝“教熊罴貔貅躯虎,以与炎帝战于阪泉之野”,文中所言是各部落图腾,(右圖)裝了義肢(右腿)的神獸,由此證明東漢醫術之發達.圭,為中國古代用來祭祀之玉器、瑞器、禮器,為官位最高者所執。在玉器中,主祭東方。皇帝的圭稱為鎮圭.

白馬佔了玉璧四分之一的範圍, 強調此白馬之重要性, 漢明帝永平十二年白馬寺.白馬帶回來的經典是四十二章經, 其中第四章的內容就是的璧背面闡述的業力.玉器圖騰大小佔玉器比例有助於了解主題. 白馬身上飾如意吉祥紋彰顯馱佛經東來的善業功德.白馬為此璧主要圖騰.只有白馬身上有裝飾紋.底子的平坦達到完美無暇的境界.(都雍)始皇(嬴政莊襄王子)[0328b24] 四年西域沙門室利房等十八人。齎佛經來化。帝以其異俗囚之。夜有丈六金神破戶出之。帝驚稽首稱謝。以厚禮遣出境(朱上行經錄)

竹書紀年: 穆王,名滿, 十七年王西征昆崑丘, 見西王母, 其年西王母來朝, 賓于昭宮.

.Carved with white tone Hetian Jade, the object is bi with low relief carvings on both sides. On the front side, the scene of Emperor Moo of the Chou Dynasty’s expedition to the west to meet the Queen mother of the west is decorated. According to “annal of Chou” of “Records of the grand historian” Emperor Moo’s expedition to the West: In the seventeen years of Emperor Moo’s reign, Emperor Moo expedites to the West, for the purpose to meet the Queen Mother of the West. The second expedition will be arranged five years later.

On the top area of the bi, Queen mother of the west is sitting on a dragon bar signifying the palace of heaven, and two goddesses holding vajra and kwei respectively are sitting on the righthand sides to greet the guest from the east.   In the bottom area, Emperor Moo is sitting on a wagon driven by a knight. Around the wagon, a knight holding archery is protecting the wagon. In the rest area, many animal species on the ground and in the sky are shown.

On the backside of the bi, two sections are divided. The outer section is decorated with two dragons on the top, and two dragons on the bottom. Between the two dragons, a triangle shape with an opening at the top is decorated to signify the gate to heaven. The inner section is decorated with many sharp thorns signifying that hardship and bad things prevail on the earth. The only way to avoid that is to go to heaven via the gate to heaven( above image).  The carvings of the bi are of mastery with hole drilling and extra thin line carving.

With antiquity signs of differential weathering, dissolved pits, and calcification, it is a wonderful Han dynasty bi for professional collectors to acquire.

 

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西周龍紋系璧, Western Zhou Dynasty Jade Bi, D. 3.5cm

 

 

The object is a jade bi carved with a dragon covering on both sides. The carving style exhibits that of Shang and Western Zhou dynaties. Calcification is the major antique evidence.

龍是鱗蟲之長,是中國古代神話傳說中的生物。龍的形象最基本的特點是”九似”,具體是哪九種動物尚有爭議,不過大多數人認為龍”角似鹿、頭似駝、眼似兔、項似蛇、腹似蜃、鱗似魚、爪似鷹、掌似虎、耳似牛”。傳說多稱龍能顯能隱,能細能巨,能短能長。春分則登天,秋分則潛淵,能呼風喚雨。茲將各種龍分述如下:

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-15T064957.129虺龍(huǐ):《述異記》載:”虺五百年化為蛟,蛟千年化為龍。”虺是龍的幼年期。虬龍(qiú):古代傳說中將沒有角的幼龍稱為虬龍。《說文解字》中說:”無角曰虬,有角曰龍”。螭(chī):螭是龍屬的蛇狀神怪之物,又叫蟠螭。是一種通體黃色而且沒有角的類龍生物,北方謂之為地螻。蛟龍:一般泛指能發洪水的有鱗的龍。相傳蛟龍得水即能興雲作霧,騰踔太空。《墨客揮犀》卷三說:”蛟之狀如蛇,其首如虎,長者至數丈,多居於溪潭石穴下,聲如牛鳴。”角龍:指有角的龍。據《述異記》記述:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍”。應龍:又作黃龍。背生雙翼的龍,據《述異記》記載:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍、千年為應龍。”據說當年軒轅帝的有名大將就是應龍,主要功績有斬殺蚩尤、夸父。火龍:傳說中全身被紅色的火焰包圍的龍。《清史稿》載:莒州赤龍見於龍王峪,先大後小,長數丈,所過草木如焚”。蟠龍:指蟄伏在地而未升天之龍。在《太平御覽》中,稱蟠龍”身長四丈,青黑色,赤帶如錦文,常隨水而下,入于unnamed (1)海。有毒,傷人即死。”行龍:傳說鯉魚化蛟,蛟又化龍,而當龍達到一定境界時,會化為行龍。青龍:在二十八星宿方位中,龍表示東方,屬青色,因此稱為”東宮青龍”。青龍為”四靈”或”四神”之一,又稱為蒼龍。蜃龍:蜃龍棲息在海岸或大河的河口,模樣很像蛟,也有可能是其中的一種。原文網址:https://kknews.cc/news/9z9zp9q.html:

本系璧凸面雙面一體雕琢, 淺浮雕蟠螭紋是唯一的圖騰, 系璧雙面為單一蟠螭所盤踞, 線條蜿蜒優美, 刀工具商周風格, 整體鈣化是主要的古玉跡象.