西周龍紋系璧, Western Zhou Dynasty Jade Bi, D. 3.5cm

 

 

The object is a jade bi carved with a dragon covering on both sides. The carving style exhibits that of Shang and Western Zhou dynaties. Calcification is the major antique evidence.

龍是鱗蟲之長,是中國古代神話傳說中的生物。龍的形象最基本的特點是”九似”,具體是哪九種動物尚有爭議,不過大多數人認為龍”角似鹿、頭似駝、眼似兔、項似蛇、腹似蜃、鱗似魚、爪似鷹、掌似虎、耳似牛”。傳說多稱龍能顯能隱,能細能巨,能短能長。春分則登天,秋分則潛淵,能呼風喚雨。茲將各種龍分述如下:

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-15T064957.129虺龍(huǐ):《述異記》載:”虺五百年化為蛟,蛟千年化為龍。”虺是龍的幼年期。虬龍(qiú):古代傳說中將沒有角的幼龍稱為虬龍。《說文解字》中說:”無角曰虬,有角曰龍”。螭(chī):螭是龍屬的蛇狀神怪之物,又叫蟠螭。是一種通體黃色而且沒有角的類龍生物,北方謂之為地螻。蛟龍:一般泛指能發洪水的有鱗的龍。相傳蛟龍得水即能興雲作霧,騰踔太空。《墨客揮犀》卷三說:”蛟之狀如蛇,其首如虎,長者至數丈,多居於溪潭石穴下,聲如牛鳴。”角龍:指有角的龍。據《述異記》記述:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍”。應龍:又作黃龍。背生雙翼的龍,據《述異記》記載:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍、千年為應龍。”據說當年軒轅帝的有名大將就是應龍,主要功績有斬殺蚩尤、夸父。火龍:傳說中全身被紅色的火焰包圍的龍。《清史稿》載:莒州赤龍見於龍王峪,先大後小,長數丈,所過草木如焚”。蟠龍:指蟄伏在地而未升天之龍。在《太平御覽》中,稱蟠龍”身長四丈,青黑色,赤帶如錦文,常隨水而下,入于unnamed (1)海。有毒,傷人即死。”行龍:傳說鯉魚化蛟,蛟又化龍,而當龍達到一定境界時,會化為行龍。青龍:在二十八星宿方位中,龍表示東方,屬青色,因此稱為”東宮青龍”。青龍為”四靈”或”四神”之一,又稱為蒼龍。蜃龍:蜃龍棲息在海岸或大河的河口,模樣很像蛟,也有可能是其中的一種。原文網址:https://kknews.cc/news/9z9zp9q.html:

本系璧凸面雙面一體雕琢, 淺浮雕蟠螭紋是唯一的圖騰, 系璧雙面為單一蟠螭所盤踞, 線條蜿蜒優美, 刀工具商周風格, 整體鈣化是主要的古玉跡象.

 

 

 

 

 

The legendary He’s Bi, D.32.8cm, Hole D.5.2cm, T.0.8cm, 1390grams

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-29T124619.306

 

Here we attempt to recover the evidence of the existence of the legendary He’s bi based on available historical records.  The evaluation dimensions consist of time event, form, material, dimension and cultural aspects of this bi. 本玉璧尺寸與山东博物馆馆藏鲁国大玉璧相同, 然而玉質, 設計及刀工則非該玉璧可以比擬.

Carved with top quality white jade, the object is bi with symmetric motifs and carving Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-29T124845.467style on both sides. The plane of the bi is divided into two sections by a rope shape line. The outer section is heaven which is formed by four god’s faces. Between the god’s face has an auspicious motif carrying the meaning of gate to heaven. The god’s face is formed by two sets of the dragon which is formed by phoenix the major motif of He’s home country Chu State.

山东博物馆馆藏鲁国大玉璧,1977年出土于鲁国故城遗址,为战国时期的随葬礼玉,周径32.8厘米,孔径11.6厘米,器型较大,为国内发现的战国玉璧中最大的一件。

 

 

 

戰國青玉神面勾聯雲紋玉璧, Warring States Jade Bi, D. 13cm, T.1.1cm

Webp.net-gifmaker (65)

 

本器青玉雕琢, 形制為玉璧, 雙面對稱淺浮雕工藝雕琢, 紋飾主體為戰國風格神面, 繩索紋及勾連雲紋. 外層四等分處飾神面紋涵意為天界, 內層為勾連谷紋涵意為地界, 內外層之間飾繩索紋. 古玉跡象為差異風化及擴散暈沁色.  Carved with green tone jade, the object is a typical bi. The carving style is low relief. Major motifs consist of God’s face, connected cloud, and rope.  Antiquity evidence is differential weathering and diffusive marking.