The jade artifacts of Liangzhu Culture have three significant elements worth considerations. The first element is the impact on the motifs of jade artifacts of the later periods. For example, the god’s face motif constitutes the major motifs of the Spring and Autumn Period. The curling claws shown under the God’s face constituting the claws of the dragon for the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties. Second, many Liangzhu Culture jade artifacts with smooth cut marks on the surface of the jades of which the reasons behind that are still unknown. Third, many Liangzhu Culture jades are carved with the shape not in proportion to the boundary of raw material. This is the practice called carving under the limitation of the size of the material. This is the practice that let the carving object bigger with an imperfect proportion of artwork rather than carving smaller object with perfect proportion of artwork.
Artisans from the Hongshan Culture emphasized the shape of an object rather than details of lines or motifs. In addition to single entity designs, many Hongshan Culture jades have complex designs from a different entity. For example, there are jade knives with dragon and phoenix handle, the jade knife with horse head handle. Dual holes called holes of bugle shape on the same side of the artifacts are usually seen but its implication still remains unknown. The dragon and phoenix motifs of Hongshan Culture are believed the origins of those motifs for later periods in the Chinese jade artifact’s history. For more information, please read Jades of the Hongshan culture – Elizabeth Childs-Johnson
紅山文化主要分佈在內蒙古東南部和遼寧西部地區，紅山文化因首次發現於中國內蒙古自治區赤峰紅山而得名，距今五、六千年左右，延續時間達二千年之久。紅山文化的社會形態處於母系氏族社會的全盛時期.紅山文化的玉料除了岫岩玉外, 有許多是透閃石玉。 紅山文化的內涵十分豐富，玉器大多取材大自然之飛禽走獸, 寫實與抽象均頗具神韻, 紅山文化的玉器造型多以圓形的弧線為主, 其特色是原始及質樸, 剛勁挺拔, 渾圓飽滿, 以形取勝. 大多數的玉器具有同面的內部貫穿喇叭形孔, 俗稱像鼻孔, 孔道彎曲, 外寬內窄, 孔壁呈現薄砣具所琢出之細陰線. 紅山文化玉器的形制甚為多樣化, 玉龍玉鳥則為典型的造型, 而且被認為是後世玉器中龍鳳圖騰起源的重要證據, 本網站的龍鳳玉刀, 已經明顯出現同一件玉器上龍鳳組合之紋飾。
Openwork carving in Chinese jade fully exhibits the fantastic skill of Chinese jade carvers who dedicated his time and effort to the hard work. In the era before the Spring- Autumn period, jade is precious and only royal families can own it. The jade carvers only play the role of workers. They must be responsible for the completion of the carving and make sure no accident to damage the work. In case of accidents, they will be punished even paid for their life. Today when we appreciate a jade work, we must be sincere and pay respect to jade in addition to enjoyment.