The Evolution of Jade Cong 玉琮的演變






Jade cong is one of the ritual jades ( the others are bi, huang, kwei, tiger, zhang ). The evolution of jade cong may be observed from the shape and motif aspects. In terms of  shape aspect, jade congs have evolved from early Liangzhu Culture’s broader top-narrow bottom shape into late Liangzhu Culture’s and Spring-Autumn period’s equal width top and bottom shape, and further into Warring States’ narrow top-broader bottom jade congs. In terms of motif aspect, jade congs have evolved from early Liangzhu Culture’s deity face to  late Liangzhu Culture’s deity face coexists with crown to Spring-Autumn period’s auspicious cloud or sign to Warring States’ dragon and priest. For similar article, please read A Timeline of Jade Cong 玉琮年譜.

玉琮與玉璧, 玉璜, 玉圭, 玉璋, 玉琥同為中國古玉的六瑞.

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.


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戰國鳳首神面紋玉琮, Warring States Jade Cong


H.7.3cm, W.5cm, D.2.6cmS__4014084


本件戰國鳳首神面紋玉琮, 鳳首及神面均以如意雲紋構成, 線條婉約優雅, 分佈均勻, 疏密得宜.本玉琮系由頂級的羊脂白玉琢成, 白色的寶石光芒四射.S__4014082

Carved with white fine quality jade, this jade cong has low relief of God’s face, phoenix head and auspicious cloud. Master workmanship carving is shown.

Appraisal Indexes:

  1. quality of jade: 10
  2. rareness: 9
  3. historical and cultural significance: 8
  4. workmanship: 9
  5. size:5
  6. condition: 10Still_2018-02-06_015203_60X_N0125

Qijia Culture Jade Cong 齊家文化玉琮





齊家文化玉琮, H. 9.5cm, W. 8cm

本玉琮的形狀結合圓形和方形的鑽孔有齊家文化特色。 其次,本玉琮為素面不同于已裝飾各種圖案後期玉琮,如差異風化,擴散暈沁色和溶蝕孔古玉跡象明顯。

11377164The plane of each side merges the round part of the center cylinder without clear boundary like the congs of other cultures. Similar items are seen in the National Palace Museum. Antiquity evidences include differential weathering, cleaving veins and dissolved pits.

Appraisal Indexes:

  1. quality of jade: 7
  2. rareness: 8
  3. historical and cultural significance: 7
  4. workmanship: 9
  5. size:6
  6. condition: 10