中華民族是一個愛玉的民族. 中國古玉的歷史可以遠朔至八千年前興隆窪文化時期. 古代中國人將君子比德於玉, 對玉的鍾愛, 可見一斑. 許慎說文解字雲: 「玉, 石之美, 有五德者. 潤澤以溫, 仁之方也. 鰓理自外, 可以知中, 義之方也; 其聲舒揚, 專以遠聞, 智之方也; 不撓而折, 勇之方也; 鋭廉不忮, 絜之方也.」將玉的美好發揮得淋漓盡致.
古玉的收藏涵蓋鑒定, 鑒價及鑒賞三大領域; 古玉的鑒定不祇要探索玉器的歷史淵源, 還要從科學的角度確認古玉的跡象; 古玉的鑒賞不僅從器物的角度審美, 還要從審美的意象中去觀想人生的哲理. ，反映出不同歷史時期 的社會結構和生活理念，而在歷代政治層面、宗教信仰、文化思想的脈絡上，始終扮演 著相當重要的角色。正因如此，審視每件玉器美感的來源，並不僅止於外在的器形及紋 飾，更重要的是歷史所賦予的人文價值與意義
古玉圖像學(Iconology)係探討古玉圖像(icons)的科學, 一般而言, 古玉圖像(icons)涵蓋古玉的形制(form), 紋飾(motif), 呈現法(presentation)三個層面, 古玉圖像學(Iconology)在中文領域中尚在萌芽階段,可資參考文獻資料較少, 本書試圖根據古玉實物, 以創新的做法, 歸納出古玉的形制(form), 紋飾(motif),呈現法(presentation)三個層面, 加以深入詳盡說明.
呈現法(presentation)涵蓋隱喻呈現法( metaphor), 透視呈現法(perspective).
檢視幾款與西王母故事圖騰相關的玉璧發現, 周穆王訪西王母的主題有兩式, 一為周穆王的馬車西行, 一為周穆王的馬車東返, 而兩式璧的另一面, 分為兩圈, 內圈為以如意雲紋表示善業, 以荊棘紋表示惡業的善惡輪迴圖, 外圈四方表示兩組開放的天門, 兩組封閉的天門. 另一式為一面為周穆王訪西王母, 另一面記載漢光武帝相關事蹟及光武中興史蹟銘文.
The quality of the jade, carving works, form, and motif are the four main areas to appreciate Chinese antique jades. Among them, the quality of jade may serve as the preliminary step to judge whether the jade artifact’s genuineness. As far as the further step to verify the exact age of the item, we cannot help to consider the workmanship, form, and motif. The purpose of the present article is to discuss the motif itself.
Motif is like a symbol, although it is abstract in nature, if you know the principle of formation, it is not difficult to understand its meaning. Motifs often reflect the aesthetic standard of different ages. If you are able to control the characteristics of the particular motifs of different ages, you will be able to verify the particular age of the artifact.
After the long-term development, the characteristics of the jade artifact’s motif can be grouped into two periods: the transient period and the mature period. Because of the vast amount of archaeological data, here we only present an elementary reference framework, and only discuss the mature or stable period characteristics.
The motif of the Hongshan Culture Jade
Pig dragon and same-side dual hole are the major characteristics of Hongshan Culture jade.
Motif and form of Liangshu Culture jade
Cong and god’s face are the two major characteristics of the Liangshu Culture jades. Later period, the 共工 symbol relate
- The motif of the Shang Dynasty jades
God and Weapons are the major Shang Dynasty Jade Motifs.
(1). Motif fits the form of jade
The line’s formation follows the shape of the form.
(2)The eye has the shape of the character 臣, most Shang Dynasty jades no matter if they are human or animal, the shape of eyes has the shape of 臣.is it a sign to emphasize the importance of the eye like many legends in the world such as the Sanxingdui Culture.
(3) Dual lines carving, of the two lines, one is using press down style, and the other is using decreasing contour style. First, carve two incise lines, then to decrease the contour for the outer line gradually to generate a convex line.
The jades from the FuHow tomb are carved streamlined and according to a procedure. Almost all jades are carved with two incise lines enclosing a convex line. The corner of the line looks rigid.
- The motif of the Western Zhou Dynasty jade
The motifs of Western Zhou dynasty jades do not necessarily relate to the form of jade. The style of carving is presented in the shape of the line which is called a big slant surface.
- The motif of the Spring Autumn period
The motif shows low relief from a concrete shape to an abstract shape. Ho’s bi has shown the unique characteristics of shape forms in shape. The so-called shape within shape(形中有形)
- The motif of the Warring States
The shapes of the motif are from abstract to geometric. In addition, the composition of the motif is simple to complicate.
6. Motif of the Chin Dynasty
- The motif of the Han Dynasty
The motif of cloud, grain, and grass sheet are developing to popular. High relief emerges. At the beginning of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Gan Ying was sent as an envoy to the Great Qin State (Roman Empire), so the jade ornamentation of the Eastern Han Dynasty, in addition to highlighting the ideas of Chinese immortals, also integrated Western characters and illusory mythical beast modeling elements.