探索商周青銅器饕餮紋與各時期玉器神面紋Exploring the Mystery of God’s Face Motifs on Shang & Western Zhou Dynasties Bronze Wares and Jades of Different Periods

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南宋羅泌《路史·蚩尤傳》稱,「蚩尤姜姓,亦為炎帝之苗裔。 南北時南朝史學家裴駰撰《史記集解》引注:「縉雲氏,姜姓也,炎帝之苗裔,當黃帝時在縉雲之官也。 」相傳蚩尤是牛圖騰和鳥圖騰氏族的首領。 據《史記·五帝本紀》,黃帝在阪泉之戰中戰勝炎帝后,蚩尤作亂,黃帝又在涿鹿之戰中擊敗蚩尤:「蚩尤作亂,不用帝命。 於是黃帝乃征師諸侯,與蚩尤戰于涿鹿之野,遂禽殺蚩尤。 」 那麼,黃帝怎麼殺掉蚩尤的?據說是斬下他的頭顱,令其身首異處。後來,人們將「蚩尤頭」的形象刻劃到器物上,以強調一種神秘能量,突出器物的威嚴和神聖,遂漸形成了商周時流行的獸面紋,即後來所說的饕餮紋。 饕餮紋在商周時期重要的、宗教色彩很濃的器物上流行,原因並不單一,不能排除饕餮紋是「蚩尤頭」的可能性。良渚文化的神面可能近似於商周 饕餮紋, 春秋戰國以後的神面紋偏向吉祥的層面, 神面的容貌不像饕餮紋的恐怖. 最下方之春秋玉璧係神面之代表作。  神的脸由两只龙头组成,龙头由凤鸟组成。Spring Autumn Jade Bi-disk of the lower right here is worth to be noted in this context. The spirit’s face is composed from two dragon heads which s__3604483in turn composed from phoenix. The carving technique of the artifact applies the typical Western Zhou Dynasty 45 degree slant carving and slim incised lines for the Spring Autumn period to the greatest extent. The spirit should be touched by offering this bi-disk.

Proverb: God heals and the physician hath the thanks (English).

 

 

 

 

Xia Dynasty Jade Ax, 夏代玉戚,D.24cm

005brpupgy6ok213maw1e夏代玉戚制作工艺精美, 玉戚从刀柄到刀刃而言,上端窄而厚,下端宽而薄表面呈平稳下降。 中间两端各有六个齿牙,三个向上三个向下象征着稻穗或麦穗, 可能是作为宗教祭祀仪式使用的礼器, 祈求五谷丰收,  本玉戚有明显溶蚀孔古玉迹象。crop

Archaeological discoveries in the Xia Dynasty has found rice, wheat, beans, melons and other agricultural products. This jade  ax( d.24cm) is carved notches on both sides , three notches are  tilting backwards slightly, while the other three are tilting forwards. these notches symbolize the ears of rice or wheat. This may be a evidence of the Xia Dynasty agricultural development. In addition, the motifs of Xia Dynasty jades may serve more evidence that Xia Dynasty’ agricultural civilization.

Proverb: True blue will never stain (English).

春秋動物玉器造型有商周青銅器之餘韻, Ear Shape of Spring Autumn Jade has a Tradition of Shang & Westren Zhou Dynasty Bronze Wares

 

 

公元前770年,西周滅亡,平王東遷,開啟了一個新的歷史時期-東周。東周分春秋,戰國兩個階段。春秋共計有294年的歷史,這一時期是社會經濟急劇變化,禮崩樂壞,政治局面錯綜複雜,軍事鬥爭層出不窮,而學術上又是百家爭鳴,文化異彩紛呈的一個變革時期。春秋時期是我國鐵器的發展階段,鐵制砣具逐漸替代了青銅砣具,這一重大的技術革新使得春秋的玉雕工藝上了一個新的台階。春秋玉器在技法上繼承了西周的雙勾陰線刻和斜刀,但相比西周有了明顯的變化,雙勾陰線更加繁複,更加密集;斜刀線條則變得更寬,更具動感。此時的浮雕、鏤雕技藝,則更加精湛,使得玉器更富立體效果,別具一格。新創谷紋 玉器中最早的谷紋,見於春秋晚期,是穀物種子顆粒的象形。穀粒的造型及布局特點是淺浮雕,穀粒圓鼓,體形較大,手感圓鈍,穀粒後端較尖細,常加細彎陰線,排列較稀疏,且不太規則。這一時期的玉器,不少優美器型,線條運用更臻嫻熟,紋飾刀工幹練遒勁,風格繁複奢華, 造型上有商周青銅器遺韻, 例如本文所列之玉蟾蜍及玉鼠, 其方形耳朵造型即與商周青銅鼎之方形立耳相似。

The Spring-Autumn & Warring States Periods are also called Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The carving style of the jade artifacts for the Spring-Autumn period (770 BCE – 403 BCE) is 132611710derived f

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rom the late Western Zhou dynasty and has been developed into a style with more detailed motifs and lining. The bosom auspicious cloud is the typical motif of this period. Tiger plaque with curling body is the typical jade of this period. In addition, jade mouse and jade toad decorated with bosom auspicious clouds are popular. The jade toad and jade mouse depicted here both have the square shape ears which are similar to the square ears handles of the bronze wares of the Shang Dynasty and Western Zhou Dynasty.

Proverb: Saving is getting( English ).