Warring States Jade Cong, 戰國玉琮H. 30.4cm

Warring States Jade Cong (prismatic cylinder with four tiers) with Motifs of Dragon and Priests, H.30.4cm

The jade carving of the Warring States(B.C.403-B.C.221) is of exquisite quality. With streamlined design, most of the motifs are dragons, phoenixes, dancing ladies and crops to depict the theme of heavenly life. The low relief on the surface of the artifact applies abstract and simplified motifs while those carvings extend from them apply realistic ones.

p1234591a381785773戰國祭司龍紋玉琮, 直徑 7.8cm, 高 30.4cm, 重量 3.5kg

本器下寬上窄, 如同寶塔. 全器佈滿各種祥瑞紋飾, 精美絕倫.玉琮上端四面各一祥龍, 張牙舞爪. 下端則各有一祭祀官, 神情嚴肅.其餘的地方, 以兩邊銜接式的手法,描繪天上人間的歡樂, 可能是大動亂時代, 對歌舞昇平生活的嚮往. 就紋飾與刀工言, 祥龍符合戰國風格, 龍身上的遊絲雕法更是戰國玉器常見的線條. 本件推論為戰國玉琮自當合理.本件玉質為和田仔料青玉, 玉質晶瑩溫潤. 全器完整,呈透明黃綠色, 部分有水銀沁及石灰沁. 本玉琮玉質之美, 紋飾之華麗, 堪稱玉琮中最精美者.

Appraisal Indexes:

1. quality of jade: 9
2. rareness: 9
3. historical and cultural significance: 8
4. workmanship: 8
5. size:9
6. condition: 10

Hongshan Culture Horse Head Jade Knife, 紅山文化馬首刀L. 42cm, 2500grams

003szkb0zy6wtkzchuh8d690Made of nephrite, this jade artifact is emphasized in shape rather than the lines of curvature appeared on the surface as by many Hongshan Culture jade. With horse head as the handle of the knife whose design has bold and rough style, this jade knife has the form of the most typical shape of an ancient Chinese weapon knife.  As short mane and mouth looking of the horse is seen, it may be  Mongolian Tarpan of five thousand years ago. The horse style of the jade knife has shown that it is the horse found in Mongolia which belongs to the geographical area of the Hongshan culture. Dissolved pits and additive crystals are seen in various areas of the knife

240px-equus_przewalskii_shinjang本器刀把為馬首造型, 本器之玉質為和田玉種, 全器滿布增生晶體,多處有溶蝕孔及差異風化, 古玉現象明顯. 本件馬首玉刀之短鬃短嘴形態係古蒙古Tarpan種馬.本器系紅山文化類似形制中屬於大件之精品.

50135902_1
 Appraisal Indexes:
1. quality of jade: 8
2. rareness: 9
3. historical and cultural significance: 8
4. workmanship: 9
5. size:9
6. condition: 10

The First Seal of Empress in the Chinese History

 

 

Seal of Empress of the Chin Dynasy (B.C.221-B.C.206) ,Measurement: H.7.5cms,W.6cms.Depth 3.2cm, 165grams 

The seal is composed with three parts: The imposing pixie symbolizing the emperor, the lady kneeling on the back of the pixie, symbolizing the empress, the oval stand for the scripts of the seal. The style of the scripts on this seal conforms those of the Chin dynasty. Bronze seals ( around 2.2cm x 2.2cm) of the Palace Museum of Beijing ‘s collection. Especially the last stroke of the seal character of this seal    conforms  the typical lining of aaaaathe Chin calligraphy( petite sigillaire 小篆 ) style, in particular, the character of 皇, conforms those found unearthed artifacts. The artifact consists aging elements such as diffusive markingsdeteriorate markingscleaving veins, and differential weathering to prove its antiquity. Based on the carving and characters’  styles of the jade seal and its antiquity of evidences, this jade seal is authenticated as genuine Seal of the Express from the Chin Dynasty.

20151121004228The title of Emperor and  Empress were first appearing in the Chin Dynasty.This is the first  Seal of the Empress  in the Chinese history that makes this seal is an important artifact  and its value is beyond description. According to History of the Former Han Dynasty(漢書), composed by Ban Gu(班固),  First volume, List of High Ranking Officials of Royal Court(百官公卿表上): Zhan Shi詹事, Public official in the Chin Dynasty, Zhan Shi is  responsible for the affairs of the empress and princes’s families. Beginning Learning Record《初學記,compiled by Xu Jian(徐堅) in the Tang Dynasty, Volume 1 Inner Court Section (中宮部) Empress First (皇后第一) mentioned Chin had the title of Emperor, the first wife is called Empress. The Han Dynasty had followed this system. This is the historical record to prove that the Empress title first appeared in the Chin Dynasty and the present Seal of the Empress is the physical evidence to this historical record.

The medium has been tested with GIA Duplex II Refractometer, the refractive index is 1.61 spot reading. It is made of natural nephrite. The carving style of the mouth of the mythical animal is similar to that of the one of the Chin Dynasty. The low relief carving without open work is unique which is different from the other periods(such as Shang and Han). In addition to the scientific evidences of antiquity, one third of the object is fully calcified to form an evidence which seasoned collectors should recognize its genuineness at a first glance( the one eye item in Chinese context).    In terms of historical significance and rareness, the appraisal by taking market approach,   the Seal of Empress of the Chin Dynasty should be extremely  valuable.

Appraisal Indexes:
1. quality of jade: 10
2. rareness: 10
3. historical and cultural significance: 10
4. workmanship: 10
5. size:9
6. condition: 10

Provenance: Private collection, USA