西周龍紋系璧, Western Zhou Dynasty Jade Bi, D. 3.5cm

 

 

The object is a jade bi carved with a dragon covering on both sides. The carving style exhibits that of Shang and Western Zhou dynaties. Calcification is the major antique evidence.

龍是鱗蟲之長,是中國古代神話傳說中的生物。龍的形象最基本的特點是”九似”,具體是哪九種動物尚有爭議,不過大多數人認為龍”角似鹿、頭似駝、眼似兔、項似蛇、腹似蜃、鱗似魚、爪似鷹、掌似虎、耳似牛”。傳說多稱龍能顯能隱,能細能巨,能短能長。春分則登天,秋分則潛淵,能呼風喚雨。茲將各種龍分述如下:

Webp.net-gifmaker - 2020-07-15T064957.129虺龍(huǐ):《述異記》載:”虺五百年化為蛟,蛟千年化為龍。”虺是龍的幼年期。虬龍(qiú):古代傳說中將沒有角的幼龍稱為虬龍。《說文解字》中說:”無角曰虬,有角曰龍”。螭(chī):螭是龍屬的蛇狀神怪之物,又叫蟠螭。是一種通體黃色而且沒有角的類龍生物,北方謂之為地螻。蛟龍:一般泛指能發洪水的有鱗的龍。相傳蛟龍得水即能興雲作霧,騰踔太空。《墨客揮犀》卷三說:”蛟之狀如蛇,其首如虎,長者至數丈,多居於溪潭石穴下,聲如牛鳴。”角龍:指有角的龍。據《述異記》記述:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍”。應龍:又作黃龍。背生雙翼的龍,據《述異記》記載:”蛟千年化為龍,龍五百年為角龍、千年為應龍。”據說當年軒轅帝的有名大將就是應龍,主要功績有斬殺蚩尤、夸父。火龍:傳說中全身被紅色的火焰包圍的龍。《清史稿》載:莒州赤龍見於龍王峪,先大後小,長數丈,所過草木如焚”。蟠龍:指蟄伏在地而未升天之龍。在《太平御覽》中,稱蟠龍”身長四丈,青黑色,赤帶如錦文,常隨水而下,入于unnamed (1)海。有毒,傷人即死。”行龍:傳說鯉魚化蛟,蛟又化龍,而當龍達到一定境界時,會化為行龍。青龍:在二十八星宿方位中,龍表示東方,屬青色,因此稱為”東宮青龍”。青龍為”四靈”或”四神”之一,又稱為蒼龍。蜃龍:蜃龍棲息在海岸或大河的河口,模樣很像蛟,也有可能是其中的一種。原文網址:https://kknews.cc/news/9z9zp9q.html:

本系璧凸面雙面一體雕琢, 淺浮雕蟠螭紋是唯一的圖騰, 系璧雙面為單一蟠螭所盤踞, 線條蜿蜒優美, 刀工具商周風格, 整體鈣化是主要的古玉跡象.

 

 

 

 

 

西周玉珮, Western Zhou Dynasty Jade Plaque, H.4cm, W.3cm

3826a (1)本器青玉雕琢, 形制為玉珮, 正面為神面圖騰, 有紅山文化太陽神風格, 前額兩端具有夏代玉璋上之斜坡正方形雲氣紋特色, 前額中央飾菱形網紋, 上方有^形紋飾, 雙眼為商代風格臣字眼淺浮雕.頭頂及兩面頰均有鑽孔, 可便於佩帶. 古玉跡象為增生晶體及鈣化. Carved by pale tone jade, the front side is decorated with low relief god’s face. On both sides of forehead have low relief square circle shape of cloud motif. There are holes on top of head and both cheeks for hanging on clothes. Antiquity evidences are additive crystals and calcification.

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.

 

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西周龍胎形玉珮, Western Zhou Dynasty Jade Plaque, W.3.5cm

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本器蘋果綠色澤和田水料雕琢, 以紅山文化龍胎為造型, 正面飾商周特色盾形圖騰及鳳尾形線條, 45度斜刀法雕琢, 背面為素面, 尾部附近有一交錯台階, 可能是未完工粗胚所致, 頭部及尾巴附近完全鈣化. Carved by apple green tone fine Hetian jade, this jade plaque has the form of baby dragon, one side is decorated with Shang and Western download-11dynasty style shield and phoenix tail feather with images (1)45 degree slant carving line, the other side is plain with a step near the head, may be a sign of semi finished article. There is thorough calcification near the head and the tail.