玉鏡宸居-相互映輝的兩枚東漢玉鏡 Jade Mirrors in the Palace–Two Easten Han Jade Mirrors

《舊唐書·魏徵傳》:以銅為鏡,可以正衣冠,以史為鏡,可以知興替,以人為鏡,可以明得失。玉鏡更是中華玉文化不可或缺的一環。玉鏡指玉磨成的鏡子, 唐 白居易 《游悟真寺詩一百三十韻》:「六楹排玉鏡,四座敷金鈿。 」玉鏡又比喻明月。 唐 張子容 《璧池望秋月》詩:「滿輪沉玉鏡,半魄落銀鉤。本文試從圖騰及紋飾的角度比較兩枚東漢玉鏡。1. 東漢四靈獸玉鏡對,直徑 14公分及 13公分.  本器白玉雕琢,背面雕青龍,白虎, 朱雀, 玄武四靈獸淺浮雕, 中央有雙向鑽孔之半圓鈕, 本器鈣化之古玉跡象明顯。Eastern Han Dynasty, Jade Mirror, D.13-14cm.The dsc05168constellations or Xiù (宿) are grouped by the four directions, East, West, South and North.The dragon occupies the East and contains the constellations:角 (Jiăo) Horn,亢 (Kàng) Neck,氐 (Dĭ) Root,房 (Fáng) Room,心 (Xīn) Heart,尾 (Wěi) Tail箕 (Jī ) Winnowing basket.The tiger is in the West and contains the constellations:奎 (Kuí) Legs,娄 (Lóu) Bond,胃 (Wèi) Stomach,昴 (Mǎo) Hairy Head,毕 (Bì) Net,觜 (Zuǐ) Turtle Beak,參 (Cān) Join – Three Stars.The scarlet or vermillion bird is in the South and contains the constellations:井 (Jǐng) Well 鬼 (Guǐ) Demon,柳 (Lǐ) Willow,星 (Xīng) Star,张 (Zhāng) Growth,翼 (Yì) Wings,軫 (Zhěn) Deep emotionThe tortoise occupies the North and contains the constellations:斗 (Dǒu) Dipper,牛 (Níu) Ox,女 (Nǚ) Woman,虛 (Xū) Emptiness,危 (Wēi) Danger,室 (Shì) Room,壁 (Bì) Wall

dsc052541-12. 東漢龍鳳祭司紋玉鏡, 直徑8公分. 龍鳳係至為吉祥之物, 神面尤其是象徵萬物主宰。本器青玉雕琢,玉鏡造形,背面光滑,正面以淺浮雕技法為之,正中心飾祭司,身長羽毛,當可飛天, 服裝飾魚鱗, 應可潛水,玉鏡外圈左右飾龍鳳紋, 下方飾如意紋說構成的神面, 本器構圖疏密有致, 刀工精美流暢, 鈣化古玉跡象明顯。Dragon and phoenix are considered as auspicious animal and bird. God is the master of all beings. The jade 30500026n234580soq9mirror uses these motifs to show its auspicious nature. The priest in the center has  wings to imply his ability to fly. Fish scales are decorated for the dress to imply his ability to swim like fish. Carved with pale tone jade, this mirror is decorated with low relief dragon and phoenix at both sides of the outer ring of the mirror. At the bottom, a god’s face fabricated with ruyi is located at the bottom. With mastery craftsmanship, this jade mirror has antiquity of calcification. (right image is a portion of Shin Dynasty bronze mirror)

 

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春秋玉鹿, Spring Autumn Period Jade Deer, L.8.8cm

 

鹿與祿同音, 祿星,或稱子星、跳加官等,為中國神話中的財神,與福星、壽星並稱為「福祿壽」的天神,與壽星皆立於福星之側。西周時, 玉鹿珮是十分常見的玉器. 在玉器圖騰中, 鹿是狩獵圖中被獵的主角, 也意味祿為人們追逐的對象. 本器青玉雕琢, 呈匍匐狀, 頭部以誇大手法呈現, 約佔全身三分之一, 鹿角簡化成為頭部一部分, 全身飾春秋風格飽滿型如意紋淺浮雕, 本器古玉跡象為擴散暈沁色及鈣化現象.  Deer has the same sound of fortune in Chinese. In Chinese s__2842645antique jades, deer is a popular motif. Many jade deer plaque are seen in Western Zhou Dynasty. In addition, deer are usually seen as the main object of hunting seen on the jade containers. Carved with pale tone jade, the jade deer has an exaggerated head with simplified horn embedded into the head. The deer has a crouching posture, the whole body is decorated with bosom auspicious motif of Spring Autumn style. Diffusive markings and calcification are the major evidence of antiquity. For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.3716a

紅山文化太陽神, Hongshan Culture, Apollo(Sun God), H.11cm, W.4cm

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紅山文化崇尚大自然, 掌管大自然的神祇應該也就成為崇拜的對象, 陽光, 空氣和水是萬物生命不可或缺的原素, 太陽神應該就是紅山文化所崇拜的對象. 本器青黃玉雕琢, 眼睛碩大呈水滴形, 狀似外星人, 耳朵寬大向兩側張開, 嘴唇扁平寬大, 頭部向上拉長, 中央有兩個開口的孔, 形狀如二角, 頸部背面有兩個內部貫穿的象鼻孔, 雙手握拳置於腰部, 雙腳相連形成孔狀體. 本器之設計巧妙具神秘感, 古玉跡象為擴散暈沁色及鈣化. Carved with apple green tone jade, the object is as__3416082statue of Hongshan Culture sun god. Having shape of water drop, the eye is big. The ears are wide open. The forehead having shape of horns  is elongated upright with two open holes at the center. Two bulged holes are located on the back of neck. Both hands are resting on the hips, the legs are connected into a hole handle. The total design is well designed and has a mystery effect. Antiquity evidences include diffusive markings and s__3416081calcification.

Proverb: The sun loses nothing by shining into a puddle (Greek).

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.