Han Dynasty (220 BCE-220 CE)

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s__3751986-11The jade carving technique of the Han dynasty is famous for its sharp, straightforwardness. Carving style of some simple items such cicada is known as the eight times carving. The main motif for western Han is the auspicious animal with flying wings. The size of jade artifacts tends to become larger owing to abundant supply of fine quality Hetian jade when the territory of early Western Han had covered the Hetian area. After eastern Han, the main imagesmotifs are the four auspicious creatures (dragon, phoenix, tiger, the integrated structure combining snake and turtle), cloud and eagle. Different from previous periods, Han Dynasty jades have shown modern Chinese images-1characters reading long happiness, suitable for offspring appeared on many bi-disks jades.  One important fact should not be neglected is that many exquisite and spectacular royal jades, some with scripts, identifying particular emperors, have only been seen in the private collections. aeThis conforms that fact that almost all the tombs of Han emperors and royal families have long been excavated unofficially. Those exquisite and spectacular royal jades have long been kept in the hands of private collectors for generations. There is no surprise that they are not displayed in any public museums. Sample jades are as follows:

 

 

1.Han Dynasty Thin Carving Plaque, 0.2cm漢辟邪獸薄雕2.Western Han Dynasty Jade Rhinoceros, L. 22cm, H. 14cm3.Han Dynasty Jade Bi, D.19.5cm,T.0.8cm漢代黃玉璧4.Emperor Kwan-Wu of Eastern Han Mutton Fat White Jade Paperweight5.Western Han Dynasty Jade Ko Halberd Ax 西漢黃玉玉戈6.Jade Bi Disk漢長樂銘文玉璧7.Emperor Kwan-Wu of Eastern Han Dynasty  Mutton Fat White Jade

 

 

Chin Dynasty (221 BCE- 206 BCE)

S__2826289Although with short period in the history, the Chin Dynasty reveals the highest achievement in the jades carving techniques. The jades in this period have presented unique kind of double reverse L and square cloud motifs that are the key to identifying jades for this period. The mouth of mythical animal is open with teeth shown but not open work carving. The most important and mysterious jades of Chin are the Seal of the Inherited Empire and the Seal of the Empress.  Most archaeologists expect to find the majority of the Chin jades assuming that they had been kept in the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang. The truth can only be found by the time of the excavation of the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang.

 

 

Spring-Autumn & Warring States Periods (770 BCE- 221 BCE)

The Spring-Autumn & Warring States Periods are also called Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The carving style of the jade artifacts for the Spring-Autumn period (770 BCE – 403 BCE) is derived from the late Western Zhou dynasty and has been developed into a style with more detailed motifs and lining. The bosom auspicious cloud is the typical motif of this period. Tiger plaque with curling body is the typical jade of this period. In addition, jade mouse and jade toad decorated with bosom auspicious clouds are popular. Sample Spring-Autumn jades are as follows:

1.Spring Autumn Dragon Fish, 春秋玉龍魚L.8.3cm,50 grams.

2.Spring Autumn Jade Cong, H. 29cm, D.7cm, 3500grams

3.Spring Autumn Jade Mouse, L.10cm, H.4cm,W.3.5cm, 220grams.

4.Spring Autumn Jade Tiger,L.7.5cm,H.1.7cm,W. 1.7cm, 50grams

5.3291       6.Spring Autumn Jade plaque, L. 7.3cm, W. 5cm, 75grams春秋玉珮

7.Spring Autumn Jade plaque, 春秋玉珮L. 8.5cm, W.3. 5cm, 60grams

8.Spring Autumn Jade Plaque,春秋虎珮 L.14cm, W.4cm, 100grams

9.Spring Autumn Jade Bi-disk, D. 32.8cm, T. 0.6cm.春秋玉璧

The jade carving of the Warring States (403 BCE – 221 BCE) is of exquisite quality. With a streamlined design, most of the motifs are dragons, phoenixes and dancing ladies. The low relief on the surface of the artifact applies abstract and simplified shapes. Typical bi and cong decorated with dragon, phoenix and priest are popular designs of this perimg201207031625290iod. Many bis are seen with the design of attaching the dragon or phoenix on both sides of the bi. Various styles of crop motif are emerged in this period. Open work jade plaques decorated with dragon, phoenix by various shapes are very popular.Sample Warring States jades are as follows:

1.Warring States Jade Cong, 戰國玉琮H. 30.4cm

2.Jade Vase, H. 13cm, W.9.8cm, 510grams

3.Warring States Jade Vase, H. 21cm

4.Warring States Jade Vase, H. 22cm

5.Warring States Jade censer, L.7.5cm,H.5cm,W.4cm

6.Warring States Jade plaque, D. 7.5cm, 50 grams

7.Warring States Jade Plaque, W. 15cm, H.8cm, 110grams

8.Warring States Jade Huang, L.25cm, H.9cm, 190 grams戰國玉璜

9.Warring States Jade plaque,H.11cm,W.6cm, T.0.5cm,51.5grams

10.Warring States Jade plaque,H. 7.1cm, W.6.0cm,. T.0.5cm, 51 grams.

11.Warring States Jade Huang, L. 13.2cm, W.2.8cm, T. 0.5cm, 45grams

12.Warring States Jade Dragon Ring, W. 19.3cm, L.32cm 戰國玉瑗