Seal of Empress of the Chin Dynasy (B.C.221-B.C.206) 秦代皇后之印H.7.5cms

品名:秦辟邪玉跪人紋橢圓座陽刻篆文皇后之印, 高7.5cm, 長6cm, 寬3.2cm,165grams

說明:本器青白玉(經折光儀測定折光率1.61證明材質為天然軟玉)雕琢, 印鈕為辟邪獸, 體形雄偉, 象徵皇帝至尊, 背上跪伏者嬌小之象徵皇后之玉女, 楚楚憐人。印座呈橢圓形, 印文為陽刻秦代小篆.本器經折光儀測定折光率1.61證明材質為天然軟玉。 古玉之跡象如石灰沁, 冰裂紋,擴散暈沁色一一具備。本器之印文完全符合秦朝(公元前221年—公元前207年)特色。刀工細膩工整, 線條流暢, 此皇后之印是中國歷史上第一個皇后之印, 堪稱國寶中的國寶。秦始皇帝的母親為帝太后。從見於文字的狀況看,秦人在秦孝公以後,對立王后、立嗣,已十分重視了。立後(皇后)、立嗣的制度在這一時期已經確立了。”“秦國在發展壯大過程中,各種國家制度已臻完善,秦統一中國後更全面建立了各種制度,並定出了皇帝的正妻為皇后、母親為皇太后的制度。《漢書•百官公卿表上》說:“詹事,秦官,掌皇后、太子家,有丞。屬官有太子率更、家令丞,僕、中盾、衛率、廚廄長丞,又中長秋、私府、永巷、倉、廄、祠祀、食官令長丞。諸宦官皆屬焉。 秦時設置的“詹aaaaa (1)事”之官既然有“掌皇后太子家”的職能,說明秦代是有“皇后”的。“詹事”的這一系列屬官,顏師古在“諸宦官皆屬焉”句後有註:“自此以上,皆皇后之官。”我們在出土的秦封泥中明確可以看到“私府丞印”(837~838)、“永巷”(563~565)、“永巷丞印”(566~574), 說文解字所列秦代小篆為”自”部首, 而且赤峰出土之瓦量(殘)二六年皇帝盡諸侯黔首大安詔丞相狀中之皇就是自部首之秦小篆皇字. 清代亦使用之.本印之”自”部首皇合乎秦小篆皇字,後世以白為部首之皇字,並非秦小篆,而是隸書.

Seal of Empress of the Chin Dynasy (B.C.221-B.C.206) ,Measurement: H.7.5cms,W.6cms.Depth 3.2cm, 165grams 

The seal is composed with three parts: The imposing pixie symbolizing the emperor, Still_2017-05-10_174154_60X_N0514the lady kneeling on the back of the pixie, symbolizing the empress, the oval stand for the scripts of the seal. The style of the scripts on this seal conforms those of the Chin dynasty. Bronze seals ( around 2.2cm x 2.2cm) of the Palace Museum of Beijing ‘s collection. Especially the last stroke of the seal character of this seal    conforms  the typical lining of the Chin calligraphy( petite sigillaire 小篆 ) style, in particular, the character of 皇, conforms those found unearthed artifacts. The artifact consists aging elements such as diffusive markingsdeteriorate markingscleaving veins, and differential weathering to prove its antiquity. Based on the carving and characters’  styles of the jade seal and its antiquity of evidences, this jade seal is authenticated as genuine Seal of the Express from the Chin Dynasty.

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