夏代存在史實相關之歷史文獻, Evidence of Xia Dynasty

S__4849667《算書》《周髀算經》《卷上》”故禹之所以治天下者,此數之所生也。”xia1

大禹謨: 禹曰:「朕德罔克,民不依。皋陶邁種德,德乃降,黎民懷之。帝念哉!念茲在茲,釋茲在茲,名言茲在茲,允出茲在茲,惟帝念功。」

尚書 夏書 《禹貢》
禹別九州,隨山濬川,任土作貢。

竹書紀年 -> 帝禹夏后氏
帝禹夏后… : 元年壬子,帝即位,居冀。頒夏時于邦國。

Xia Dynasty Jade Ax, 夏代玉戚,D.24cm

005brpupgy6ok213maw1e夏代玉戚制作工艺精美, 玉戚从刀柄到刀刃而言,上端窄而厚,下端宽而薄表面呈平稳下降。 中间两端各有六个齿牙,三个向上三个向下象征着稻穗或麦穗, 可能是作为宗教祭祀仪式使用的礼器, 祈求五谷丰收,  本玉戚有明显溶蚀孔古玉迹象。crop

Archaeological discoveries in the Xia Dynasty has found rice, wheat, beans, melons and other agricultural products. This jade  ax( d.24cm) is carved notches on both sides , three notches are  tilting backwards slightly, while the other three are tilting forwards. these notches symbolize the ears of rice or wheat. This may be a evidence of the Xia Dynasty agricultural development. In addition, the motifs of Xia Dynasty jades may serve more evidence that Xia Dynasty’ agricultural civilization.

Proverb: True blue will never stain (English).

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.

 

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夏代玉璋彙集, A Collection of Xia Dynasty Jade Zhangs

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Notched zhang, L.54cm, W.14.4cm, T.0.8cm, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins , A collection of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology.牙璋。長54、最寬14.4、厚0.8厘米。河南省偃師市二里頭遺址五區3號墓出土,現藏於中國社會科學院考古研究所。

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Notched zhang, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins , A collection of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology.塗朱玉璋。河南省偃師二里頭遺址出土。中國社會科學院考古研究所藏。

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Notched zhang, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins ,A collection of Louyan Museum. 玉璋。長48.5、寬8厘米。1975年洛陽偃師二里頭遺址出土。洛陽博物館藏。

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Notched zhang, L.49.8cm, W.5.9cm, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins in 1974, A collection of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology.牙璋。長49.8、寬5.9厘米。1974年河南偃師二里頭遺址出。中國科學院考古研究所藏。

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Jade Zhang, L.39.2cm, W.10.2cm, Unearthed in Zheng Wangjing House Shangcun Shang Dynasty 1981, A collection og HenanMuseum. 玉璋。長39.2、寬10.2厘米。1981年新鄭市望京樓新村商代遺址出土,夏代遺物。現藏於河南博物院。

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Jade Zhang, L.66cm, W.13cm, Unearthed in Henan Zhuang Village in the southern suburbs of Zhengzhou City, 1958. A collection of Henan Museum. 玉璋,長66、寬13厘米。1958年河南鄭州市南郊揚莊村商代遺址出土,現藏於河南博物院。

璋一般由援(鋒刃),欄(作成扉牙狀的繩索系痕部分),內(木柄鑲裝部分)組成。 器物形態當源自、鉞、一類兵器。 璋為中國古代禮器六器之一最早見於夏代二裡頭文化遺址。In addition to 150px-Records_of_the_Grand_Historian330px-Sima_Qian_(painted_portrait)the documents appeared in the Annals of the Xia, Records of the Grand Historians, by Sima Qian, Han Dynasty, these jade zhangs should provide concrete evidences for the Xia Dynasty.

Proverb: A carpenter is known by his chips (English).

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.