夏代存在史實相關之歷史文獻, Evidence of Xia Dynasty Existence

S__4849667《算書》《周髀算經》《卷上》”故禹之所以治天下者,此數之所生也。”xia1

大禹謨: 禹曰:「朕德罔克,民不依。皋陶邁種德,德乃降,黎民懷之。帝念哉!念茲在茲,釋茲在茲,名言茲在茲,允出茲在茲,惟帝念功。」

尚書 夏書 《禹貢》
禹別九州,隨山濬川,任土作貢。

竹書紀年 -> 帝禹夏后氏
帝禹夏后…: 元年壬子,帝即位,居冀。頒夏時于邦國。Xia5Xia4Xia3

Xia2

Xia

Xia6卧马先生破译“遂公盨”铭文:天命禹,敷土隓山壑川。迺癸亥起征,降民监德。迺自作配乡民,成父母生。我王作臣人既,唯德民好。明德,憂在天下用,人邵好益庚。懿德,康亡不懋,老友盓,明经齐好,祀无愧心。好德,婚媾亦唯,协天敌用老,神复用拯,禄永御于谧燹。公曰:民日唯,唯克用,兹德亡诲。

2018年臥馬先生破譯“遂公盨”銘文大意是:把帝位禪讓給大禹的天帝虞舜,命大禹合理劃分天下的疆土,隓山壑川劈開阻擋洪水的山疏通溝壑山川,治理長年氾濫的水患。大禹得令從癸亥年開始,率領民眾開啟了與自然災害鬥爭的治水征程。為了使治水工程順利進行,大禹降旨令下黎民百姓共同監督大禹治國治水的道德行為。為解決治水時燒水做飯等必須的生活問題,大禹下令製作了大量帶有道德規範銘文的青銅盨,配發給參與治水的鄉民,青銅盨成為治水大軍中父母大眾煮熟食物主要生活用具。
大禹王作好盨後,無論大臣還是貧民軍民人等人人都能享用,這樣的美德為民眾稱讚。明君之德,在於憂天下人之憂之需之用,人們獲得器物後也更加珍愛。懿德使人安康,沒有人不為之鼓舞和勉勵。作為盂的老朋友,光明正大的經營治理整齊美好,用於祭祀無愧于心。好德,婚姻嫁娶婚媾之事亦唯她是用,協助人們征服自然災害等天敵可以一直用到老。於神,也是常用它來溝通天地神靈拯救大眾。於俸祿,它能一直默默的永遠聽從主人的御用,任憑焚燒火燹。公曰:人們日復一日的燒火做飯唯它是用,一直使用到治水大軍征服自然治水勝利的之時,這樣的美德,不能忘了教誨後人世代傳揚。

<易經>..易與天地準, 故能彌綸天地之道. ..<The Text of Yi King> The Yi was made on a principle of accordance with heaven and earth, and shows us, therefore, without rent or confusion, the course (0f things) in heaven and earth.

Xia Dynasty Jade Ax, 夏代玉戚,D.24cm

005brpupgy6ok213maw1e夏代玉戚制作工艺精美, 玉戚从刀柄到刀刃而言,上端窄而厚,下端宽而薄表面呈平稳下降。 中间两端各有六个齿牙,三个向上三个向下象征着稻穗或麦穗, 可能是作为宗教祭祀仪式使用的礼器, 祈求五谷丰收,  本玉戚有明显溶蚀孔古玉迹象。crop

Archaeological discoveries in the Xia Dynasty has found rice, wheat, beans, melons and other agricultural products. This jade  ax( d.24cm) is carved notches on both sides , three notches are  tilting backwards slightly, while the other three are tilting forwards. these notches symbolize the ears of rice or wheat. This may be a evidence of the Xia Dynasty agricultural development. In addition, the motifs of Xia Dynasty jades may serve more evidence that Xia Dynasty’ agricultural civilization.

Proverb: True blue will never stain (English).

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.

 

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夏代玉璋彙集, A Collection of Xia Dynasty Jade Zhangs

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Notched zhang, L.54cm, W.14.4cm, T.0.8cm, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins , A collection of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology.牙璋。長54、最寬14.4、厚0.8厘米。河南省偃師市二里頭遺址五區3號墓出土,現藏於中國社會科學院考古研究所。

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Notched zhang, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins , A collection of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology.塗朱玉璋。河南省偃師二里頭遺址出土。中國社會科學院考古研究所藏。

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Notched zhang, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins ,A collection of Louyan Museum. 玉璋。長48.5、寬8厘米。1975年洛陽偃師二里頭遺址出土。洛陽博物館藏。

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Notched zhang, L.49.8cm, W.5.9cm, Unearthed from Yanshi City, Henan Province Erlitou ruins in 1974, A collection of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology.牙璋。長49.8、寬5.9厘米。1974年河南偃師二里頭遺址出。中國科學院考古研究所藏。

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Jade Zhang, L.39.2cm, W.10.2cm, Unearthed in Zheng Wangjing House Shangcun Shang Dynasty 1981, A collection og HenanMuseum. 玉璋。長39.2、寬10.2厘米。1981年新鄭市望京樓新村商代遺址出土,夏代遺物。現藏於河南博物院。

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Jade Zhang, L.66cm, W.13cm, Unearthed in Henan Zhuang Village in the southern suburbs of Zhengzhou City, 1958. A collection of Henan Museum. 玉璋,長66、寬13厘米。1958年河南鄭州市南郊揚莊村商代遺址出土,現藏於河南博物院。

璋一般由援(鋒刃),欄(作成扉牙狀的繩索系痕部分),內(木柄鑲裝部分)組成。 器物形態當源自、鉞、一類兵器。 璋為中國古代禮器六器之一最早見於夏代二裡頭文化遺址。In addition to 150px-Records_of_the_Grand_Historian330px-Sima_Qian_(painted_portrait)the documents appeared in the Annals of the Xia, Records of the Grand Historians, by Sima Qian, Han Dynasty, these jade zhangs should provide concrete evidences for the Xia Dynasty.

Proverb: A carpenter is known by his chips (English).

For any questions, please write to Prof. Chen.