東漢白玉貔貅, Eastern Han Dynasty Jade Pixie, L.18cm, H.10cm, W.6cm

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本器白玉雕琢, 形制為貔貅, 貔貅又稱辟邪獸,「貔貅」較早的文獻出處有以下數個:

  1. 尚書·牧誓》:「如虎如貔」《傳》:「貔,一名執夷,虎屬也」說明西漢初年的孔安國認為貔貅與虎同類,另「執夷」可能就是「貔」的緩讀。
  2. 在 《史記·五帝本紀》中,黃帝曾經訓練猛獸建立軍隊,其中包括六種猛獸,熊、羆、貔、貅、貙、虎[1]。《索隱》:「《爾雅》云「貔,白狐」」...郭璞云:「《書》稱猛士如虎如貔。貔蓋豹屬,亦曰執夷,白狐之云似是而非。」從這裡可知道西漢初年的《爾雅》與晉代郭璞對於「貔」的解釋顯然不同。
  3. 周禮‧大司徒》:「臝物虎豹貔[豸禽]之屬。」鄭眾:「貔即貅也,云淺毛者。若以淺毛言之則入臝蟲中。」這說明東漢的鄭眾認為貔貅是短毛的獸。
  4. 說文解字》:「豹屬,出貉國。」說明東漢末年的許慎認為貔貅與豹同類。
  5. 《詩·大雅》:「獻其貔皮。」陸璣疏:「貔似虎,或曰似熊,遼東謂之白熊。」說明晉代陸璣認為貔貅像虎又像熊,在遼東則稱為白熊。《禮記‧曲禮》:「貔貅」鄭玄注:「貔貅,亦摯獸也。《書》曰:如虎如貔士或為仕。」賈公彥疏:「貔貅者摯獸,猛而能擊,謂虎狼之属也。貔貅,是一獸,亦有威猛也。」此處說明唐朝的賈公彥認為貔貅是一種猛獸。

本件貔貅兩側施翼, 頭頂呈現一角, 張嘴露齒吐舌. 呈匍匐狀, 四肢張力十足, 尾巴拉長盤桓地上, 讓人產生神秘的感覺.古玉跡象為差異風化, 擴散暈沁色及溶蝕孔. Carved with white jade, the object is a pixie with wings on both sides. With an open mouth, the tongue is stretched out and teeth are sharp.  The pixie is crouching on the ground showing mighty legs and curling tail. Antiquity evidence includes differential weathering, dissolved pits, and calcification.

pixie故宮對貔貅的解說: <此為玉辟邪,又名貔貅,為一種神獸。相傳龍生九子, 各有神通。此神獸因為很得玉帝寵愛,某日竟隨地大小 便,玉帝踩到就很生氣,往牠屁股一打。從此就沒肛門。 因為祂喜歡吃金銀財寶,又只進不出。故很多人都把他 奉為發財的神獸,將祂擺在家中或公司的財位,更可以 趨吉避煞。當你覺得財運不佳時,請記得把祂搖一搖, 因為祂也是很貪睡的,搖醒後才能繼續幫主人咬錢回來。 另外很重要的事,千萬不可以買貔貅來送人,這樣會把 財運送給別人喔。>

東漢青玉孫子兵法用間篇(前半部)銘文龍鳳紋出廓玉璧,Eastern Han Dynasty Jade bi with Scripts of Employing Spies, Art of War by Sun Tzu(part 1), H.61cm, T. 0.7cm

-尺寸長61公分-圓直徑41.5公分-厚0.7公分-雙面不同圖檔-一面字-一面圖本器和田青玉雙面雕琢,形制為鏤空出廓玉璧。出廓部分施鏤空變體龍鳳紋。玉璧飾變體天神龍鳳熊紋; 另一面雕琢孫子兵法用間篇『孫子曰:凡興師十萬,出征千里,百姓之費,公家之奉,日費千金,內外騷動,怠於道路,不得操事者,七十萬家。相守數年,以爭一日之勝,而愛爵祿百金,不知敵之情者,不仁之至也,非人之將也,非主之佐也,非勝之主也.故明君賢將,所以動而勝人,成功出於眾者,先知也。先知者,不可取於鬼神,不可象於事,不可驗於度,必取於人,知敵之情者也。故用間有五:有鄉間,有內間,有反間,有死間,有生間。五間俱起,莫知其道,是謂「神紀」,人君之寶也。』篆體銘文。本器多處紋飾邊緣存在以管鑽進行游絲毛雕為之的痕跡。本器紋飾神秘華麗, 刀工精美, 佐以孫子兵法銘文, 歷史文化價值鉅大, 本器古玉跡象有擴散暈沁色,冰裂紋及差異風化等。(台灣頤和園博物館藏品, 陳明杰鑑賞並撰文)

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Sun Tzu said: Raising a host of a hundred thousand men and marching them great distances entails a heavy loss on the people and a drain on the resources of the State. The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces of silver. There will be a commotion at home and abroad, and men will drop down exhausted on the highways. As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded in their labor.
Hostile armies may face each other for years, striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy’s condition simply because one grudge the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height of inhumanity. One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present help to his sovereign, no master of victory. Thus, what enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.
Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits; it cannot be obtained inductively from experience, nor by any deductive calculation. Knowledge of the enemy’s dispositions can only be obtained from other men.
Hence the use of spies, of whom there are five classes: (1) Local spies; (2) inward spies; (3) converted spies; (4) doomed spies; (5) surviving spies. When these five kinds of spy are all at work, none can discover the secret system. This is called “divine manipulation of the threads.” It is the sovereign’s most precious faculty.( Peace Garden Museum Taiwan Collection, Scripts by Prof. Chen)

<易經>仁者見之謂之仁. 知者見之謂之知. <The Text of Yi King>The benevolent see it and call it benevolence. The wise see it and call it wisdom.

東漢青玉出師表(後半部)銘文鳳榖紋出廓玉璧,高度68.5公分, 圓直徑45.8公分厚1.2公分

WeChat 圖片_20180725233122a本器和田青玉雙面雕琢,形制為鏤空出廓玉璧。出廓部分上方中央施圓形鏤空變體龍紋, 兩側施回首鳳紋。玉璧一面分兩層, 外層飾變體龍鳳紋, 內層飾榖紋; 另一面飾部分出師表『大小, 悉以咨之, 然後施行, 必能裨補闕漏, 有所廣益, 將軍向寵, 性行淑均, 曉暢軍事, 試用之於昔日, 先帝稱之曰能, 是以衆議舉寵爲督, 愚以爲營中之事,悉以咨之, 必能使行陣和睦, 優劣得所, 親賢臣,遠小人,此先漢所以興隆也; 親小人,遠賢臣, 此後漢所以傾頹也, 先帝在時,每與臣論此事, 未嘗不歎息痛恨於桓靈也, 侍中,尚書,長史參軍』後段篆體銘文。本器多處紋飾邊緣存在以管鑽進行游絲毛雕為之的痕跡。本器紋飾神秘華麗, 刀工精美, 佐以出師表銘文, 歷史文化價值鉅大, 本器古玉跡象有擴散暈沁色,冰裂紋及差異風化等。(台灣頤和園博物館藏品, 陳明杰鑑賞並撰文).jpg

in the palace, could be scrutinized by them before the execution, and then
there shouldn’t be any errors. General Shang Chong is a virtuous person with plenty of military knowledge. The late emperor praised him able when he was in his probation period. Thus everyone suggested he be the marshal. I think you could entrust him to manage everything in the army and he must be able to consolidate all soldiers and arrange a due post for each one. Getting along with the wise and virtuous courtiers and leaving away the vile and pleasing people, that’s how the West Han Dynasty rose.
Getting along with latter and leaving away the former, that’s why the East Han Dynasty fell. Whenever the late Emperor talked about it with me, he always repented of what Emperor Hwan and Emperor Ling had done. The ministers, vice ministers, administrators, and staff are all loyal and virtuous courtiers.( the following not shown ) I wish you could believe and trust them, and the imperial family of Han will rise again in the near future.

I was just a common farmer cultivating alone in Nan-Yang. I just wished to survive in such a chaotic world without being known to any princes. The late emperor didn’t care about my humble background and degraded himself to visit my shabby hut three times in person to ask me about the situation under the heaven. I was so grateful to him that I promised him to devote myself to him for all my life to return his grace. Later, since we were seriously defeated and nearly terminated twenty-one years ago, I have
been assigned the position of the general military advisor. The former emperor knew I am prudent, thus he entrusted me the important missions when he was passing away. Since the grand assignment, for every day and night, in fear of staining the late emperor’s reputation, I have been worried if I fulfill the mission which the late emperor entrusted me. This May we crossed the Lu River and marched into the deep sterile field. Now the south is all pacified, and the arms and soldiers are both fully
recruited, it’s time that I, with all my endeavors, lead the troops northward to regain the central land, expulse the vile villains, restore the Han Dynasty, and resettle in the ancient capital. This is all I could do to return the late emperor’s grace and fulfill the position you grant to me. When it comes to weighing the benefit of the loss and advising, Yo-Chi, Yi, and Yun will take their responsibility. I wish you could entrust me the mission of eliminating all the national rascals. If I fail
to achieve it, I’m willing to take the punishment to console the soul of the late emperor. If Yo-Chi, Yi, and Yun fail to well advice, they should also be punished to demonstrate their mistakes. And your imperial majesty, you should also speculate for yourself and accept all good advice to follow the edict the late emperor left to you. I couldn’t be more grateful to your and the late emperor’s favor. Now I’m leaving, in front of this manifesto with tears on my face, I don’t know what I’ve said.)( Peace Garden Museum Taiwan Collection, Scripts by Prof. Chen)

<易經>生生之謂易. <The Text of Yi King>Production and reproduction is what is called (the process of ) change.